Wednesday, July 31, 2019
In your view, what is economics? Economics has been defined as the allocation of scarce resources among many different players.Ã Simply understood as mere supply and demand, Economics can also be made to apply to more complex systems such as production frontiers and economies of scale.Ã Put simply, economics can be understood as the study of how different market systems interact with each other in order to provide each with the resources that they desire. The law of diminishing returns is short run analysis. True or false? The law of diminishing returns is a long run analysis.Ã It basically postulates that for every additional input that is added to the production scale, the resulting output per unit will increase up to a certain point then start to increase.Ã This is a long run analysis because it factors in the effect of additional units of input vis-Ã -vis output on the production scale over a long period of time.Ã Such effects cannot be tracked in a short term scale and if done would most probably be inaccurate. Demand and Supply are operating forces in the market. How then can the equilibrium achieved? The supply-demand model is one of the fundamental concepts of economics. The price level of a good essentially is determined by the point at which quantity supplied equals quantity demanded. To illustrate, consider the following case in which the supply and demand curves are plotted on the same graph. Supply and Demand On this graph, there is only one price level at which quantity demanded is in balance with the quantity supplied, and that price is the point at which the supply and demand curves cross. The law of supply and demand predicts that the price level will move toward the point that equalizes quantities supplied and demanded. To understand why this must be the equilibrium point, consider the situation in which the price is higher than the price at which the curves cross. In such a case, the quantity supplied would be greater than the quantity demanded and there would be a surplus of the good on the market. Specifically, from the graph we see that if the unit price is $3 (assuming relative pricing in dollars), the quantities supplied and demanded would be: Quantity Supplied = 42 units Quantity Demanded = 26 units Therefore there would be a surplus of 42 Ã¢â¬â 26 = 16 units. The sellers then would lower their price in order to sell the surplus. Suppose the sellers lowered their prices below the equilibrium point. In this case, the quantity demanded would increase beyond what was supplied, and there would be a shortage. If the price is held at $2, the quantity supplied then would be: Quantity Supplied = 28 units Quantity Demanded = 38 units Therefore, there would be a shortage of 38 Ã¢â¬â 28 = 10 units. The sellers then would increase their prices to earn more money. The equilibrium point must be the point at which quantity supplied and quantity demanded are in balance, which is where the supply and demand curves cross. From the graph above, one sees that this is at a price of approximately $2.40 and a quantity of 34 units.
The term Ã¢â¬ËGreat' can be Interpreted in a variety of ways. Fitzgerald doesn't mention the word great in his book. Ã¢â¬ËThe Great Gatsby apart from In the title; this Incredibly short title shows a lot of meaning behind the character of Gatsby. It could be Ironic, mysterious or an ode to Gatsby himself. However the title could be alluding to Gatsby great heart or love with Daisy The name Ã¢â¬ËGreat Gatsby Immediately Invokes the thought of a showman or a magician, especially with the' in the title.The simple and humble beginnings of Jimmy Gate were almost miraculously transformed into he lavish lifestyle that Gatsby thought was his destiny. In this respect Jimmy Gate is the Ã¢â¬ËGreat Gatsby' his whole life is an illusion that he conjured up to change his life completely. However there are holes in the lifestyle he created compared to the way he acted, especially during his extravagant parties, he never fully mastered the role of host, he didn't talk to all the guests inste ad he tended to skulk and hope that Daisy would appear from across the lake.There are major problems with Gatsby decision to obliterate his past life, namely he no longer feels completely comfortable In myself. This means that he can't be considered a great man within society. In the sass a Great man was considered to know everyone, throw lavish parties and be successful. This was Gatsby to an extent, he was able to manipulate the law through his connections to keep him out of trouble, he threw spectacular parties and he can be considered successful. However he could no longer connect with people, even with Daisy he often lost his nerve and ability to speak to her.Nick has to make him talk to Daisy the first time they meet again you're acting like a little boyÃ¢â¬ ¦. Not only that UT you're being rude'. This is again a sign that Gatsby isn't naturally a socialite; he wasn't brought up with money and didn't attend parties so he doesn't know how to host or to make small talk. He's th erefore not a Great socialite man. He manages to reinvent himself, through his sudden increase In money, his friendship with Mr.. Dan Cody and his need to be with Daisy; this Is what makes him great in Nick Caraways eyes.Nick admires Gatsby to the extent that he's amazed at the life Gatsby has managed to attain purely for the love of a girl, Daisy. However Nick believes that Gatsby love was misplaced, he believed that the Daisy that Gatsby had desired and dreamed about, had been romanticists so heavily by Gatsby, that the real Daisy could no longer fulfill Gatsby dream of her. In Gatsby mind Daisy is a dream that he is striving to achieve, he tries desperately to get close to her. When he finally buys the house across the lake from her, he sees the green light.This light is his hope for the future and the thing that makes him want to fight harder to become the Great man that Daisy deserves. When Daisy finally gets to his house the green light is no longer kibbles and the dream Is sh attered. This is where Gatsby greatness fails; in Gatsby mind Daisy was supposed to leave her husband and run away with him, live In the house he built for her and starts their lives again but Daisy couldn't satisfy this dream. HIS misplaced faith In this dream life with Daisy was Gatsby ultimate downfall.Gatsby was In some respects the noble denotation of Ã¢â¬ËGreat' he was successful and self-sacrificing purely for Daisy, he showed some aspects of heroic wanted. However the majority of the heroic actions were done out of selfish intent, ND Gatsby failure to accept that the girl he loved had moved on. Yet he carried on trying to make everything the way he wanted, he ended up getting so caught up in his own warped version of their life together instead of saving Daisy he ended up making her run away.He may have done everything out of love but the outcome was a warped tragedy. The connotations associated with a Ã¢â¬ËGreat man' are incredibly varied; Gatsby certainly was not a goo d man so it's questionable if he can be considered great. His amorality is a very important part of the book because it is set n the sass's hypocritical society. Gatsby was the source of gossip and scandal. People would go to his parties, drink his illegal alcohol and Judge his illegality and suspect him of having connections with the Kaiser.The rumors circulating may not have all been true but a fair few were accurate, Gatsby made his money through bootlegging, this doesn't make him a good person. Throughout the book there is the omniscient poster of TX Cocklebur, therefore it's very possible that although Gatsby suffered retribution for a crime he didn't commit, he perhaps suffered it for one of is many other crimes. In Conclusion, Jay Gatsby was a Great Illusionist and liar but not a Great man.He created a life that changed his morals and Judgments so he could please an idealized girl who he hadn't seen for 5 years. Although he may have had the best intentions to start with they were only centered on his own happiness and then refused to accept that Daisy could have moved on. The Great Gatsby ended up almost breaking up a marriage, causing severe heartbreak to the people he loved, and implemented the events that led to his own unnecessary downfall.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Wong Kah Yee Secretary, 28, Jalan Jati, Taman Bahagia, 56000 Kuala Lumpur Michael Chan Manager, Kuala Lumpur Town Council, 56000 Kuala Lumpur. 7th JANUARY 2014 Dear Sir, Dissatisfaction With The Condition Of The Apartment As the secretary of the ResidentsÃ¢â¬â¢ Association of Taman Bahagia, I would like to make a complaint on behalf of the residents of Taman Bahagia about the poor condition of the block of apartment . 2. One of the main problem of the apartment is the lifts are vandalised. There are many leaflets on the walls of the lift. Some of the buttons are also missing. Moreover, the corridors are littered with rubbish. Initially, rubbish was collected three times a week. However, since December last year the garbage collectors have only been coming once a week. Our litter bins are always full of rubbish and we have no choice so we leave the bags of rubbish next to the bins. This causes a terrible stench in our housing area. Furthermore, stray cats and dogs scatter the rubbish in searching for food. This brings very unhealthy environment in the neighbourhood. 3. Furthermore, the drains around our apartment are block and always clogged with rubbish resulting the water becoming stagnant. It is n ot uncommon to see bottles, dry leaves and plastic bags in these drains. These drains need to be clear as the stagnant water is an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes. The residents are worried as there had been a sharp increase in dengue cases in the last two months. Besides, there are also limited parking space for residents. This causes cars congesting our streets and a less stressful parking situation. 4. I have some suggestion to solve this problems. You should plan to install security cameras in the lifts. So, we can guard the lifts from being vandalism. The security guard should always patrol around the apartment to avoid this problem happen. The council should also do some surprise checksÃ on cleanliness. So our apartment can maintain the cleanness. Additionally, you should always send officer workers to our apartment to ensure the drains are cleaned regularly. The council should also prepare more parking lot in our apartment for the visitor, so our street outside wouldnÃ ¢â¬â¢t be so congested. I hope the council will look into our complaints and take prompt and immediately action to solve our problems. Thank you. Yours faithfully, Kahyan (WONG KAH YAN)
The Roles of Newspapers Newspapers keep the people aware of the activities of the government. They mobilize public opinion. They play an important role in fighting the menace of corruption. In a democracy, there should be an efficient and fearless press. Press is the mirror of the society. Newspaper is one of the initial communication tools of the society. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ve been the most usual and a generally received medium to be used in conveying the local, regional, international and national news to readers. Ever since the beginning of the society, the newspapers were published to convey the latest happening in different parts worldwide.Today the major dailies employ correspondents to collect news from all over the place and also from agencies. They write about any and every event happening at all corners of the world. They act as the guardian of the society. They help in developing public opinion. It acts as a mirror of the society and informs everything in minute detail, thus help s in forming a collective opinion. In this contemporary time the role of newspapers is very significant in the promotion of trade, commerce, and business. Big corporate houses and business houses promote their products by putting in giving roomy ads on papers.Advertisements like the classified advertisements, significant community announcements and communal notices also make up the chief content & substance of newspapers. Sporting, educational as well as campus news, cultural activities, dance drama, and fine arts are a few of the indispensable features of every primary newspaper. The readers get the knowledge of any and every activity happening in and around the area. They read about the opinion and reviews, the editorials and feature articles to know about the incident in detail.
Monday, July 29, 2019
Internal and External Audit of General Motors Inc - Essay Example GM recorded revenues worth $192,604 million during the fiscal year ended December 2005. GM also owns equity partnerships in some regional subsidiaries and joint ventures like New United Motor Manufacturing (NUMMI), Suzuki Motor Corporation, Isuzu Motors, Shanghai GM, SAIC-GM-Wuling Automobile Company and CAMI Automotive. General Motors has been facing stiff competition from the likes of AB Volvo, Capital One Financial Corporation, DaimlerChrysler AG, Fiat S.p.A., Ford Motor Company etc. for quite some time now. Owing to increased competition and reduction in margins General Motors Europe announced, during 2004, that it'll be resorting to the reduction in its annual structural costs by about 500 million by 2006. The plan included a reduction in the workforce by about 12,000 over this period. Considering such a scenario, the company requires to determine the priorities it should accord to certain products, so that better profit margins and long-term value creation can be ensured. BCG Matrix i.e. Boston Consultancy Group matrix is a very useful tool for identifying the products which contains both high-growth products in need of cash inputs and certain low-growth products which generate lot of cash. It's a two-dimensional matrix, depicting market share and market growth. Leading market position: GM has consistentl... In US it is the league of the big three with Ford and DaimlerChrysler. GM also has a strong market position in the UK, Germany, Brazil, Australia and China. Robust revenue growth in Asia Pacific: The Asia-Pacific region has proved to be very encouraging and having immense potential for the company. Despite the challenges in the Asia-Pacific region, GM recorded strong revenue growth in this region with continued strong performance by Shanghai GM in China and Holden in Australia. For 2003, GM Asia Pacific (GMAP) earned $577 million, more than three times the net income of $188 million in 2002. Company is also aggressively expanding its operations in India, another big market in the region. Such a strength in this region helps the company to offset its losses in some other regions. Strong brand portfolio: GM has a strong brand portfolio. The company has on board global brand names like Saab, Chevrolet and Cadillac. Weaknesses North America and Europe Continue to be loosing grounds: General Motors's largest geographical market, North America, accounting for nearly 75% of the total revenues, continues to show decelerating momentum. GM North America (GMNA) could earn $1.2 billion, down from $3.1 billion in 2002. Company has partially attributed this slowdown in profitability owing to the higher pension and health-care costs in the U.S, but the cause of worry for GM is its dwindling market share in US, which came down to 28.0 percent compared with 28.3 percent in 2002. Similarly for 2003, GM Europe (GME) had a loss of $286 million, an improvement from the $549 million loss in 2002. Large post retirement liabilities and high debt: GM has large unfunded other post retirement benefit obligations and high debt. As of now for every
Strategic management - Essay Example Organizational culture can be defined as an existence of shared understanding in a society, organization, team or group. Culture is understood to be a multifarious phenomenon which operates at various levels such as visible and invisible, conscious and subconscious. Culture helps in shaping the history and legacy of an organization (Wilkins and Ouchi, 2003). Cultural analysis of an organization can be used to be aware of the strengths and weaknesses of an organization. Organizational culture creates patterns of behaviour and also includes the way through which strategy can be managed in an organization. Culture has its relevance in every organization. Culture decides the way the staff interacts in the organization. A healthy culture within the organization motivates the employees and encourages them to stay loyal to the organization. Culture of the workplace also ensures existence of a healthy competition in the workplace (Cooke and Rousseau, 2011). It is the culture of the organization that drives the employees to attain the goals of the organization by performing efficiently. The culture within the organization provides the employees with predefined sets of policies and guidelines which will direct them towards achieving success at workplace (Bloor and Dawson, 2004). Work culture ensures creating a brand image of the organization in the long run by providing a unique identity to it. Most importantly, organizational culture unites all the employees who otherwise belong to different cultural backgrounds. Every organization therefore must focus on enhancing its culture to bring in p ositive changes. Organizational stability involves maintaining status quo and emerging in a methodological and slow manner. The organizations that have attained a level of growth desire to maintain the stability of such growth in the future and for that various strategies are to be implemented by the organization (Schwenk, 1989 ).
Sunday, July 28, 2019
Issues in Employee Performance - Essay Example It will use as an example a purchasing manager to clarify the arguments. The essay will refer to key issues in performance management such as strategic planning, aligning staff goals with organisational goals, dealing with underperformance, and employee development. Performance management has been defined as Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬Ëa continuous process of identifying, measuring, and developing the performance of individuals and teams, and aligning such performance with the strategic goals of the organisataionÃ¢â¬ (Aguinis, 2009, p.2). Performance management process is carried out through: planning, goal setting, monitoring, providing feedback, analysing and assessing performance, reviewing, dealing with under-performers, and coaching (Armstrong, 2009). The entire performance management system will be adversely affected in cases of poor implementation of any one of them (Aguinis, 2009). According to Armstrong (2009), performance can positively affect organisation, allowing it to concentrate on future plans and can be a factor in organizational culture. Purchasing performance evaluation is Ã¢â¬Å"the quantitative or qualitative assessment over a given time towards the achievement of corporate or operational goals and objectives relating to purchasing economics, efficiency and effectivenessÃ¢â¬ (Lysons, and Farrington, 2006, p634). The significant words in this definition are illustrated in Table 1: Evaluation is a more accurate term than performance measurement. Although the performance of purchasing managers is usually assessed by means of objective, quantified measures such as cost/price reductions and contributions to added value or profitability, performance evaluation frequently uses subjective, qualitative assessment approaches Efficiency covers the relationship between the output of goods or services and the resources used to produce them, which means spending well. Effectiveness covers the relationship between the intended
The Prime Minister Debate - Essay Example Together with the senior ministers who make up the cabinet, the prime minister is responsible for his strategies and performance to the queen, his political party, the parliament, and above all the electorate. The office is not instituted by constitutional laws but subsists according to a customary convention which outlines that the queen appoints an individual as the prime minister. One should be capable of upholding the buoyancy of the House of Commons. Usually, the Prime Minister is the head of the party or coalition of parties with the majority seats in the chamber (Tuchman 1996,p.37). The prime minister is mandated with the task of making top appointments including the cabinet members, ministers, High commissioners, senior civil servants, senior military officers and Ambassadors while other appointments are made by the minister who have powers to appoint or dismiss. The prime minister under constitutional practice can declare war and by the virtue of being the chair of the defen ce council can influence the deployment and disposition of the British Armed Forces. Even though he is not permitted to directly order the deployment of the nuclear weapons, he has the power to offer consent to their use. The Prime Minister is also vested with the power to appoint ministers called the Ã¢â¬ËwhipsÃ¢â¬â¢ whose main duty is to solicit the support of MPs and to discipline nonconformists of the government parliamentary party. Since the electorate votes for parties and not individuals, party discipline becomes extremely crucial. In fact, MPs can be expelled from their party for failure to rally behind the government on core matters though this does not necessitate their resignation as MPs. Ministers and MPs with political privileges are prone to demotions if they do not support the Prime Minister fully (Barnett 2009,p.84). The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s party strengthens its position by ensuring that it has the majority number of MPs in the house or enjoys a bigger support of the voters. The Prime Minister on the other hand enforces the support of the Commons through party negotiations without much consideration to the opposition MPs. However, at times, a government may be unable to legislate effectively despite enjoying a luxury support. For instance in 31st January 2006, the former British Prime Minister Tony BlairÃ¢â¬â¢s administration found it difficult to convince the House of Commons on various issues concerning religious abhorrence (Knappen 1998,p.53). On such circumstances, the government is forced to change its proposals to curb any chance of defeat in the Commons as this would render it critically weakened. Such a scenario would necessitate the Prime MinisterÃ¢â¬â¢s and his governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s resignation. In most cases, the Prime Minister solidifies his position by keeping his staunch supporters in the cabinet. He also enforces his position by exercising his legal power of choosing the cabinet ministers to attend a particular meeting. In essence the prime minister holds the power of any government he is administering since he is accountable for both producing and enacting the ministerial code (Chrimes 1997,p.56). Owing to the fact that the prime minister controls the law making process, he or she can easily and at will manipulate the process of enacting his own legislative agenda or those of his political party. Over a period of time, the holders of this office have ensured that laws have been enacted to cement their position or for the interest of their
Saturday, July 27, 2019
History and Environment in the Mimbres Valley - Article Example The valley thus experienced a variation in the population over the years, and this affected its overall ecology. The research focuses on how the people survived in this valley; how its ecology changed, and how this differs from the present. The area features a short river, predominantly pinon, juniper and oak trees, orchards and alfalfa, and a floodplain, which continues to be farmed by gravity-fed small irrigation canals. The riverine environment contrasts significantly from surrounding areas, which also has more drought-resistant vegetation. Although it appears the land is fairly preserved, the significant recent degradation as the third cycle of human interference is resulting in more permanent consequences for plant and animal life. The original Mimbres people transformed from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to farming supplemented their diet with wild plants and animals and were self-sufficient. Culturally, they resembled the Hopi and other pueblos. As their population increased, they cut down more trees, engaged in more intensive farming, used more weedy plants, and overexploited select larger animal species. This also denuded the valley bottom from plant life. Some of the check dams constructed in marginal areas to retain rainwater still remain. The first cycle of degradation then occurred between A.D. 1000 to 1130 despite evidence of some measures of environmental conservation. However, as noted by Lt. Emory in 1846, the environmental balance was later restored. This is attributable to the population decline by the 1400s and the preservation of the river. The next cycle of degradation was caused by the opening of a shelter during the later 1800s, in particular from the wood gathered to fuel it resulting in large-scale deforestation aided by steel tools, wagons, and horses. However, this situation reversed after the smelter was closed.Ã
The Human Resources Department Changing Role - Affirmative Action, Californias Prop 209, and the emerging trend of Cultural Diversity - Research Paper Example Prior to Affirmative Action, African Americans, Asian Americans, women, and other minority groups found it doubly hard to find jobs. Discrimination of the minority groups and women can be based on the individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ color, gender, national origin or religious beliefs. Affirmative action violations include discrimination on the basis of employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ promotion, salary, or other work benefits. Likewise, universities refused to accept African American students and students from other minority groups. The police force implemented discrimination in the hiring of police officers. Affirmative action requires all schools to allocate a certain percentage of the total student population to minority groups. Affirmative Action offers preference to job applicants or employees belonging to the female gender, non-white job applicants, and the job applicantsÃ¢â¬â¢ ethnicity. Under the act, the disparate impact computation was launched (Holzer, H., David, N.,, 2010). A survey conducted in 2005 shows that more than 50 percent of the people favor the support for the minority groupsÃ¢â¬â¢ desire to have equal job opportunities for women. The same research shows that more men prefer the implementation of the Affirmative Action provisions than women (Myersetal, 2007). For example, the University of CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s school of medicine allocated a quota of 16 of the total available student enrollment slots to the minorities and women enrollment applicants. When Allan Bakke tried to enroll in the school, Bakke passed the medical school entrance tests. However, he could not be accepted because the 16 enrollment slots were reserved for the minorities and women school enrollment hopefuls. Bakke sought the United States CourtÃ¢â¬â¢s intervention. The court required the school to accept BakkeÃ¢â¬â¢s enrollment on the ground that BakkeÃ¢â¬â¢s constitution right to equal
Friday, July 26, 2019
Leadership - Essay Example Moreover, good leadership engenders the quality of inspiration over coercion; choosing to allow for the possibility of trailblazing new ideas rather than merely following a prescriptive playbook of actions based upon needs. Further, leadership, although prized and likely a commodity that is lacking within the current professional and political world, is not often appreciated within many of the largest multinational corporations throughout the world. This is of course due to the fact that oftentimes management is expected to be carried out utilizing a rather formulaic approach that does not rely upon the leadership capacity or imagination of the individual. However, leadership itself entails a great deal more than mere direction. Corollary parts of trust, belief, and mutual understanding between people are necessary components that cannot and should not be diminished. With respect to what leadership means to me, the answer to this deviates slightly from the textbook definition of what defines leadership. In this way, leadership must engender a great deal of selflessness, tacit yet clearly discernible levels of trust, and the continual dedication to considering the needs of those under your supervision prior to your own needs (Mutalib & Ghani, 2013). As a function of defining and understanding these nuanced concepts to a greater degree, the following analysis will focus upon understanding the following quote: Ã¢â¬Å"A leaderÃ¢â¬â¢s true test is his or her ability to inspire behavioural changes required to transform organizational performance throughout the ranksÃ¢â¬ (Caldwell et al., 2012). This will in turn be analyzed leveraging an appreciation for the many schools of management theory that have existed and been promoted throughout the years; attempting to gain a level of oversight with regards to how leadership is viewed as a transformational process through which greater degrees of cohesion and increasing levels of utility/profitability can be engaged. B efore delving into the step-by-step discussion of how the different management theories relate to an interpretation of leadership within the current model, it must be understood that leadership and management are two distinctly interconnected concepts. Whereas management refers to the actual process of accomplishing tasks, focusing resources, and mitigating risks, leadership engenders a more nuanced and personal understanding of how a given individual can encourage cooperation and respect within the employees/stakeholders in question (Mayer et al., 2012). By much the same token, management has a number of roles and functions whereas leadership is not judged by easily quantifiable metrics. For instance, management roles and functions can include, but are not limited to, decision-making, problem-solving, motivation, influencing, negotiating, delegation, and communication. This is not meant to state that leadership does not engender many of the same requirements. However, leadership is something that should not be understood to exist wholly separate from the management process. Rather, the two, in an ideal interpretation and application, must exist side-by-side as a means of providing the best overall product and experience to all individuals involved within the process (Muethel et al., 2012). In such a way, one of the best means of measuring effective leadership is to seek to engage with effective management and ensure that these determinants are met first and foremost. Only once effective management is realized, can true leadership tickets form. This is not to state that leadership must follow managerial process and/or theory 100% of the time. Rather, past instances have proven that many times there is a market deviation from standard managerial protocol and the
SOFT DRINK - Essay Example Supply, Demand, and Equilibrium: Supply and demand is the main concept on which whole study of economics is based. The demand is known to be the quantity asked by the consumers or buyers and us usually backed by the ability and willingness to purchase the product. Demand has an inverse relation with the price which means that when the price of soft drink increases, it would eventually decrease the demand of soft drink. On the other hand, Supply means the quantity of the products offered by the industry or market at a certain level of price. Supply has a direct relation with price which shows that whenever the price of soft drink increases the supply will also increase. Equilibrium is a state where the demand and supply are equal. It means that the amount of soft drink being supplied is equal to the amount that is demanded by the buyers (McEachern, 2012). The diagram shows that equilibrium occurs when the demand and supply of the product is equal. This is the most favourable position as this is the most efficient point for an industry to be at. It means that the demand of the product is equally matched with the supply of the product (McEachern, 2012). Soft drinks are included in monopolistic market where the number of firms that operates in the market are many and provides differentiated products to the buyers. These products are not identical but are differentiated and each soft drink in the market is clearly differentiated from others. Entry and exit in this market is easy creating shifts in the market (McEachern, 2012). The possibility of shifts in demand and supply are as follows: Demand Changes in price When the price of soft drinks increases the demand for soft drinks will eventually decrease which means that the buyers will reduce their purchases. On the other hand when the price of the soft drink decreases the demand will rapidly rise. This shows that price has an inverse relation with demand which means that rise in price will lead to fall in demand (Ta ylor and Weerapana, 2009). Availability of substitute goods Demand is inversely proportional to the availability of substitute goods. This means that increase in substitute goods will decrease the demand of soft drinks. The more substitute products become available in the market the less is the demand for the product (Taylor and Weerapana, 2009). Changes in income The demand for soft drinks can also be affected by changes in the income. As income rises the demand for the soft drinks will ultimately increase and the demand curve will shift to right side. Similarly, when the income decreases the demand for the soft drink will decrease and the curve will shift to left side which shows deficit (Taylor and Weerapana, 2009). Supply Changes in price of goods When the price of soft drinks increases the supply for soft drinks will eventually increase (Taylor and Weerapana, 2009). Changes in price of related goods When the price of related goods increases the supply for soft drinks will event ually increase as there will be more demand for the soft drinks (Taylor and Weerapana, 2009). Changes in price of inputs The price of the inputs or ingredients used to produce soft drinks also causes the supply curve to shift. An increase in price of inputs will ultimately decrease the supply of soft drinks from the suppliers. This will be done to cover up the cost incurred by the suppliers due to increase in the prices of the inputs. Similarly, decrease in the price of inputs w
Compare and Contrast Research Methods Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1
Compare and Contrast Methods - Research Paper Example research, the first thing that usually takes place is the identification of the topic to be researched on and the method/approach to be used in conducting the research. Normally there are four main approaches and research methods namely quantitative, qualitative, pragmatic/mixed methods. This paper will compare and contrast these research approaches and methods with others used in contemporary business research such as case studies, ethnography, focus groups, and informal and in-depth interviews. Quantitative research is among the most commonly applied research method, and is based on positivism. It involves the collection of data, which is then converted into numerical forms and calculated to give results from which conclusions are made. This type of research usually goes through a number of processes. The first process usually involves the formulation of hypotheses. A hypothesis in this case refers to the question that the research intends to address and involves predicting a possible outcome of the research. However, in order to conduct this research and verify the hypothesis, a number of instruments are normally used which include, among other things, observation checklist, computer tests or paper. Data collection is usually done using various methods such as interviewing, questionnaire, observation and computer packages among others (Johnson, 2008). Quantitative research is founded on an premise that only a one truth exists, which is independent of the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s assumptions. This type of research is also based on objectivity since researchers are expected be impartial as regards their behavior attitudes and presence so as not to influento impact the research outcome. As a research, this school of thought requires the researchers to evaluate their methods and conclusions so as to identify any bias in the result. In this research, researchers are expected to go the extra mile to make sure that what is measure is really, what is supposed to be
U.S. History Origins 1816 - Essay Example In olden days, ships were the only mean of transport from one continent to the other. Explorers like Amerigo Vespucci and others explored the world on ships and went to many different and diverse places. Europe has many differences as compared to the Africa and America. The major reason that the New World is separated from the Old World is that the ocean between the Europe and America was considered to be vast and endless. The maps at that time were depicted to have no knowledge of the Western Hemisphere (Elliott, 24-67). On the other hand, Asia stretches for long and it was considered that the continent that was discovered by the explorer Amerigo Vespucci was a part of the Asia not a separate continent. People thought, it was in appropriate to initiate trade with the similar continent through another part of the continent. The Native Americans (People residing in New World) were fully adapted to the local foods and were environment. None of them ever tried to cross the borders of th e region and they were adapted to the wind life of the New World. The people utilized the bone tools and live in the Stone Age while the Europe advanced much in technology. Results of Separation of the New World and the Old World The results of the separation of the New World and the Old World encouraged the European colonies to localize in the region and settle there with the domesticated crops and animals. The natives of the New World are less likely to go and leave the native place due to the social and communication separation between the residents of the new world and the old world. They were far from the known technology at that time. The native were unable to gain knowledge from the other world parts and thus they have fixed knowledge about how to hunt and what to hunt for them to eat. The new world natives are far from the societal laws and regulation and communal systems that were followed by the old world countries at that time. They have no knowledge of arts and behavior and remain uncivilized due to the communication gap between the new world and old world countries. The native of the new world have no knowledge about the domestication of the animals and plants for their food and thus have no knowledge about the medication in case of illness and had food scarcity is case of droughts. Some tribes were settled on the banks of the rivers to have the constant supply of food and water. The natives of the new world were less likely to build large houses and lead their lives in open sky or in small canopies that can be easily transported from place to the other. The natives of the new world survive on hunting the forestÃ¢â¬â¢s wild animals and women in the tribe collect the edible plants and fruits available in the forest and the surroundings. While, the old world countries survived mostly on the domesticated plants like the most crops and the domesticated animals like cows, chickens, pigs, goats, sheep, etc. Domestication of the plants and animals play ed an important role in the development of the technology and the food resources (De la Vega, 78-88). Before the domestication of animals and plants, people used to survive on hunting and collecting wind plants and fruits from the forests. The natives of the new world worried more about the food while the old world concentrated on the exploration and enhancement of technology. There are several reasons for the
Thursday, July 25, 2019
Managing Information Technology Globally (I need someone with a good backgroud about IT and Database for this case analysis) - Essay Example Dell was the first in its competitors to think of online business and though leads best. It offers customer service for configuring dell products and with technical support view Internet same as it was once on telephones which reduces its cost price and increased its revenues. Dell successfully made a network of not only with customers but also with distributors and suppliers through e-commerce. Its sale automated functioning enhances the business strategies and Dell on its e-commerce establishment starts serving with e-business solution. E-business solutions were to offer customer the solution for their business by converting their business in virtual world as did by Dell. Though, Dell earned its revenues, more with the selling hardware devices and giving online customer services, in addition with, providing e-solutions to small organizations, incorporation with other software companies. 2. Characterize the distribution of decision-making responsibility at Zara, when it comes to how Zara's products are designed, allocated, and distributed How does this pattern of decision-making contrast with decision-making in traditional, hierarchical organizations (IT at Zera) Zara is responsible for its products for sale, and though developed a high-tech e-commerce site for its online business.
The impact of corporate financial performance on market value - Essay Example The process of internationalization, changes the possibility of creating higher values for the stakeholders (M. TÃ ³th, 2012). In a global business environment, we see different opinions calling for change of approaches to corporate governance and to control and manage companies in a way that will continue to achieve both effective performance and appropriate social accountability and responsibility(B.Tricker, 2009). The construct of firm performance is of central importance to management research because explaining variation in performance is an enduring theme in the study of organizations (e.g., Hoopes et al., 2003). Although firm performance has been recently proposed as a multidimensional construct that consists of many different aspects such as operational effectiveness, corporate reputation, and organizational survival (Richard et al., 2009), one of the most extensively studied areas is its financial component, the fulfillment of the economic goals of the firm (Barney, 2002; Venkatraman and Ramanujam, 1986). To assess the financial aspect of firm performance (i.e., financial performance), organizational researchers generally use either accounting-based measures of profitability such as return on assets (ROA), return on sales (ROS), and return on equity (ROE), or stock market-based measures such as Tobins Q and market return (Combs et al., 2005; Hoskisson et al., 1999; Hult et al., 2008). When the company grows as a result of a financial decision such as detention of profits, then that growth will be reflected on the current value of the shares on the grounds that it is the result of a reflection of what will happen in the future. The present value of the shares is the sum of the future cash flows, and this will be reflected on the accounting profits when they occur and they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t reflect the historical accounting
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Exam 1 - Essay Example Jill would likely claim damages and remedies for suffering Ã¢â¬ËinjuryÃ¢â¬â¢ and damaged reputation following the employerÃ¢â¬â¢s concealment of some sections of the contract to her during recruitment. Additionally, she may claim damages for wrongful dismissal from the job; and her denial of benefits despite the purported validity of the contract. As an arbiter I would ask the employer to reinstate Jill from the date of dismissal with compensation entitlements for the time the employee has been away, but under new and clearer terms that would not be injurious to her morals and reputation as a staunch Christian. She would then withdraw the notice she had issued to the Justice Department. Usually, any monetary compensation is not applicable in her case because she served for less than six months. According to Palmer, if she brought the issue to the Federal Court, the judges would order the implementation of any of the two primary remedies for illegal termination of the employment contract (158): first, the two parties can either be ordered to honor the contract and perform what it entails in letter and spirit throughout the remaining period of the agreement or order the payment of damages to Jill for the injuries she has suffered. As a Federal Judge, I would not recommend the implementation of a specific performance of the employment agreement because a substantial amount of time may have elapsed between the period of the purported breach of the contract or dismissal and when the verdict of the Supreme Court is given. The Federal Court deliberates mainly on appeal cases, which may have lasted several years under lower jurisdictions. Ã Secondly, I would be unwilling to force the two parties to carry on their employment relationship when frosty ties may have already set in. For instance, JillÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to contact the Justice Department following what she perceived to Ã¢â¬ËunethicalÃ¢â¬â¢ responsibilities bestowed upon her by the employer,
Donella Meadows et al. The Limits to Growth - Assignment Example Meadows et al. (1972) appear to be in logical congruence with the authors of the text as they agree that these problems are difficult to control and to deal with them exhaustively might take the next one hundred years. The authors also make an interesting proposition as they seek to depict the space-time continuum and its relationship with perspectives created in dealing with the aforementioned global issues. In what the text refers to as the Ã¢â¬Å"human perspectivesÃ¢â¬ , the authors are focused on defining a relationship between personal and family level problems that people seek to address and global problems. As the text puts it, every person needs to focus on finding solutions to his short-term problems, such as looking for food for his family (Meadows et al. 18). At the same time, it is important to focus on the long-term problems that affect us all as humans, such as the possibility of wars and global demand for agricultural products, not to mention how they may affect the short-term efforts, something only a few people do. An important assertion that is presented in the text relating to these issues is that every man has different standpoints regarding time and space, which is the result of differences in culture and past experiences as well as the urgency with which a problem needs to be addressed. However, it appears unfortunate that not many people realize the urgency with which global issues, such as overexploitation of nonrenewable resources, a highly industrialized world, and its impacts on the natural environment, should be addressed (Meadows et al 21). For many people, the higher the urgency of the problem, the more the people that seek to deal with, leaving some of these global problems to just a few individuals who focus on finding a solution to them. The text then suggests a model that is aimed at dealing
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Current event of a business subject in the US - Essay Example It makes reference to the Ingenuity that is necessary for every job assignment, from a garbage collector to a transport engineer, a tennis player to a fashion model. All these can be summed up in two words, Ã¢â¬Å"Work EthicsÃ¢â¬ . Without work ethics, the heavy monetary budget and incentives on education is of no use. The unpleasant news is that instilling a sound work ethic in the current social breed of youthful generation is tremendously hard to accomplish. Work ethics has no standard definition, but it can be viewed as a set of characteristics and attitudes that an individual employee allots to the grandness and virtue of work. Some attributes of solid work ethics include promptness, diligence, reliability, ambitiousness, dutifulness, honesty, sobriety and other traits generally considered acceptable insofar as good workmanship is concerned. Lack of these attributes in a worker is made manifest through laziness, shoddy performance of tasks and waste of time in endeavors that are not job related. To make matters worse, there is no clear legal framework for the enforcement of work ethics since it is never a part and parcel of the job description. This explains why public job creation debates ignore this argument entirely. A strong work ethic mostly results from the manner in which a person is brought up and strengthened by early and appropriate training. This is for the most part uncharacteristic of the rush to cut down unemployment in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world.Ã At a tender age, a child must be instructed on the importance of doing assignments and completing it on time, and that laziness of any form is unacceptable and inappropriate. This calls for strong family nurturing which instills in an individual a strong sense of responsibility. Policies adopted by colleges are not of much help when it comes to instilling appropriate work ethics. There is an approach to increase college revenue by maximizing enrolment, and consequently the standards are becoming
Company briefing - Essay Example This reformation helped injecting the profitable seeds of investment, creative ideas and advanced management methods into the main bloodstream of the organization. The expansion after this transformation has been at an electric pace, alongside with helping the sustainment of the century old tradition. Not only did it continue an ever-lasting tradition, it also expanded the brand out of China and into the world market. Numerous Formidable Fist Products LXL is a skilled operator, when it comes to creating maser pieces like the moon cake, from the lotus seed paste. In the long journey of about 120 years, LXL has evolved the quality of the moon cake, incorporating premium materials and traditional techniques. The moon cake is one of the brand-names of Guangzhou, used as a souvenir and also exported to various countries of the world like Japan, America, England, Canada, Australia, Germany, Netherlands, South Africa and part of East and South Asia. A fact that highlights the success of the product was the recommendation in the Asian Games 2011, to the list of recommended souvenirs. This small moon cake was an instant hit amongst the atheletes and people all around the globe. There are over a thousand traditional cakes and Dim Sum; such as Shrimp Dumpling, Beef ball etc, other than the moon cake, which the LXL produces and is famous for. The said products are made with traditional techniques to sustain the original taste and finesse texture of the product. The modern freezing technology has ensured the freshness and constant supply to the restaurants and hotels all around the world. Servicing the 5 Star Way The advancement of LXL is not confined by only the cakes and Dim Sum. LXL group has ventured in 5-star restaurant business as well, the restaurants ranking in the top 100 China at this present time. The main restaurant, placed at the ShangXiaJiu road, has a century old history associated with it. The history still reflects in the ancient style furniture and decorat ion style. Another branch restaurant located at Liwan Lake Park, where the best feature of this place is the option of enjoying high quality Cantonese cuisine in a genuine and quite Cantonese garden looking over the LiWan Lake. LXL has not compromised over fresh ingredients and top chefs in the city to ensure best quality food of the Cantonese nature. The high quality food is not the only reason for their success but also the amazing premium services they offer, has increased their fame many-a-folds in the industry as well as among the customers. The main target of LXL is the providence of a warm and comfortable environment for the customers to enjoy while they enjoy a fabulous dine-out experience, wither with their families or their business partners. The orders can also be customized according to ones own choice and liking. The customer satisfaction is the utmost priority on the wish list of LXL. Novelty: Our Driving Force Since the transformation of 2006, LXL has moved up to new heights of success. In the present market, LXL group offers catering, cakes, trading and food processing. Presently, 5 restaurants, over 30 cake houses and 2 food processing factories are being run by them. A cold ware house of over 30 tons storage capacity and imported machineries from Japan for advance food processing ha been set up to ensure optimum quality of the products. Creativity never stops
Monday, July 22, 2019
Teacher Effectiveness Essay In the initial perceptions report I selected confidence and patience as the personal attributes most relevant to effective teaching, and thorough subject knowledge and outlining clear and consistent expectations as the two most important classroom strategies to overall effective teaching. Various research studies into effective teaching have found that personal attributes, teaching and learning strategies and classroom management all play a significant role in overall teacher effectiveness. It has been found that teachers who exhibit socially just personal attributes such as care, compassion and empathy for all students are most effective. Teachers who are ? active in employing a range of teaching and learning strategies that are heavily based on student-teacher and student-student interaction are also found to be effective. In terms of classroom management, effective teachers are able to outline and stick to a clear set of high expectations for all students. These findings correlate with my initial perceptions to carrying degrees. While all the initial perceptions bear some relevance, generally speaking, factors and influences that make up effective teaching involve a much broader set of criteria than just patience, confidence, subject knowledge and expectations. The personal attributes of teachers is shown to be a significant factor in overall teacher effectiveness in a number of studies. Generally speaking, teachers who are socially just and have a genuine concern for all students have been found to be the most effective. This is a much broader conception of personal attributes than what was identified in the initial perceptions of teacher effectiveness, that of confidence and patience. The keen ambition to care for, respond to and develop the talents of all students is repeatedly referred to in studies as being a significant determinant of overall teacher effectiveness (Dinham, 2004, OECD, 1994, Batten, 1993). Such an ambition requires a number of personal attributes, one of which would include patience. In all teaching frameworks, teachers will inevitably face a range of abilities, skills and personalities. If teachers are genuinely committed to caring for and developing all students equally they will inevitably require patience each in terms of the rate at which students understand the concepts and information being presented to them as well as the manner in which students act and respond to both them personally and to the work they are presented with. However, while patience is a definite requirement in the care for all students, there is a broader set of attributes that are needed to achieve this ambition. Teachers who exhibit socially just attributes such as honesty, empathy and compassion are more likely to genuinely care for and develop all students, thereby making them more effective (Dinham, 2004). Significantly, these attributes will also play a significant role in providing a safe learning environment for all students, one of the three central components of the Quality Teaching Framework (NSW Quality Teaching Framework). Teachers who are reflective, willing and able to adjust and improve and to set an example of moral conduct for their students have also been found to be effective (OECD, 1994). A willingness and ability to reflect and adjust, as well as to provide a moral example for students depends significantly on the personal attributes of the teacher. Confidence is relevant to these attributes as in order for the process of self reflection and moral modelling to be successful, teachers must first be confident enough to engage in the process. For example, if a teacher does not possess confidence in their own moral beliefs and reasoning, they will be unable to model them for their students in any effective manner. However reflection and moral conduct requires more that just confidence. Ultimately it requires outward looking behaviour in an attempt to achieve positive relationships and a culture for success (Dinham, 2004). Specific teaching and learning strategies as they are implemented in the classroom bear a significant impact on overall teacher effectiveness. In terms of my initial perceptions report, thorough subject knowledge was identified as being of great importance for overall teacher effectiveness. The role and relevance of thorough subject knowledge is acknowledged as dependant upon overall teacher effectiveness to varying degrees (Darley-Hammond, 2000). The Darling-Hammond study (2000) found mixed support for subject matter knowledge as a determinant of effective teaching. The study showed that the greater time spent in teacher training courses and in subsequent professional development, on method areas and pedagogical development in specific methods, increased overall teacher effectiveness. While this doesnt relate directly to specific subject knowledge, content knowledge undoubtedly supports pedagogical knowledge, thereby making it relevant and influential. A student focussed, interactive approach that draws upon a range of specific teaching strategies is consistently found to be most significant in terms of effective teaching and learning practices within the classroom (Batten, 1993, Brophy and Good, 1986, OECD, 1994, Ayers et al. , 2004). Brophy and Good (1986) describe ? active teaching as being a central component of overall teacher effectiveness. By active teaching they are referring to an approach that relies heavily on student-teacher and student-student interaction, limiting the amount of time spent on independent instruction and unsupervised seatwork (Brophy and Good. 1986). The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Quality in Teaching, Paris Report (1994) supports this assertion in their report findings, stating that effective classrooms generally implemented teacher led activities with considerable interaction between the students and the teacher. Both studies acknowledge whole class discussion, closely monitored group work and effective questioning as part of the teacher led interactive approach. Each of these studies acknowledged class discussion and effective questioning as integral to the ? active teaching approach. Such skills involve the ability to effectively pose a combination of open and closed questions, questions that are based on recall and reflection and questions that allow for differences of opinion and interpretation in order to encourage meaningful discussion (Wragg and Brown, 2001). Such techniques allow students to personally engage with material, thereby making the work significant to students, one of the three components of the NSW Quality Teaching Framework. It is doubtful whether this would be able to be effectively achieved without a thorough knowledge of the content to which the teacher would develop questions and discussion about. Ayres et al. (2004) in their study regarding effective HSC teaching found that teaching and learning strategies that were dynamic and varying, for example lessons that progressed from presentations, to discussions, to interactive seat work and to some independent work, were found to beÃ effective. The study also found that the more effective teachers were willing to choose more difficult topic options and would change their chosen topics regularly. In order for teachers to effectively teach the difficult options, or continuously change their chosen topic in order to maintain their motivation, they would need to possess thorough knowledge in their subject. Therefore, while specific subject knowledge may not be an overwhelming component of effective classroom strategies, those that are deemed most effective would not work without the teacher first possessing thorough knowledge of their subject. Classroom management is the third component that is found to be most influential in overall teacher effectiveness. In my initial perceptions report I chose outlining clear and consistent expectations as an effective teaching strategy in order to increase the chance of student behaviour consistency. This initial perception seems to be supported by various studies regarding teacher effectiveness. The OECD report (1994) describes effective classroom management as providing a safe and orderly classroom where a set of high expectations are explained to and understood by students. In Margaret Battens (1993) study of individual Victorian teachers who had been deemed to be effective teachers, such practices as refusing to talk over students, carrying out outlined consequences such as giving more work to students who misbehaved and clearly and firmly stating to students to change their behaviour when they were not following classroom expectations, were often employed to manage an orderly and safe classroom for all students. All such strategies involve my initial perception of outlining clear and consistent expectations of students, and if carried out effectively, support the creating supportive environments element of the NSW Quality Teaching Framework. Effective teaching depends upon a broad range of criteria relating to socially just personal attributes, a broad ranging and interactive set of teaching and learning strategies and high classroom expectations. Within the range of this criteria patience, confidence, subject knowledge and consistent expectations undoubtedly bear some influence, however there are many other factors that also bear significant influence. References Ayers, P. , Sawyer, W. and Dinham, S. (2004) ? Effective teaching in the context of a Grade 12 high-stakes external examination in New South Wales, Australia, British Educational Research Journal, Vol. 30, No. 1 pp 141-165. Batten, M. , Marland, P. and Khamis, M. (1993) Knowing How to Teach Well: Teachers Reflect on Their Classroom Practice. ACER Research Monograph No 44. Hawthorn: ACER. (Chapter 3 pp. 18-33) Dinham, S. (2004) ? The Influence of Leadership in Producing Outstanding Schooling Outcomes in Junior Secondary Education, AESOP Report, School of Education, University of New England, Australia. Darling-Hammond (2000) http://eppa. asu. edu. epaa. v8nl Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (1994) Quality in Teaching, Paris: OECD (Chapter 4: pp. 34-71). Wragg, E. and Brown, G. (2001) Questioning in the Secondary School, 2nd Edition, London: RoutledgeFalmer. (Chapter 3: pp. 27-39).
Economics The Russian Experience Essay The economy of the Soviet Union was based on a system of state ownership and administrative planning which meant that the state was the single decision organ in economic matters. The economic growth was guided by what was then called Five Year Plans crafted by the national decision makers appointed by the state. This approach made it easy for the resources to be harnessed to achieve set objectives. The economic set up concentrated more in building capital goods, machine manufacture and the chemical industry. The economic setup was top down model that offered little option for feedback to move to the decision makers. This made it hard for the decision makers to assess the effects of their decisions with a view to eliminate destructive ones. It therefore made it hard for the decision makers to abandon earlier decisions that failed to work or that produced negative results. (http://www. answers. com/toic/history-d-the-soviet-union-1985-1991). The economic setup, otherwise called communism, often resulted into the problem of over or under production of goods. The system paid little attention to the production of consumer goods and this led to black markets thriving. This black market had a counter effect on the economic agenda of the planners. The system was also very bureaucratic delaying issues that required urgent decisions. This scenario led to a back logging of decisions, which overwhelmed the decision makers with time. Middle level managers began to agitate for freedom to deal with customers and suppliers directly for them to more effectively respond to the economic laws of demand and supply. This agitation built up to eventually break the Soviet Union because the decision makers and the political leaders of the time failed to respond to these demands responsibly. (http://www. answers. com/toic/history-d-the-soviet-union-1985-1991). The economic setup of the Soviet Union had made some big gains, which enabled them to become industrialized faster than other economic fronts. Failure to respond to arising issues was what contributed to its downfall. Strong institutions had already been setup such as the agricultural sector, foreign trade as well as the financial sector. All capital goods were collectively owned with little exceptions. Individual property ownership was minimal. The ownership controversy also contributed to the Soviet Union breakup. Since then Russia has had to undergo intensive reform program to enable them to respond to the largely capitalistic world economy (Moszczynska, undated) A key sector that is the focus of the reform process is the financial sector. The Russian economy is reliant on oil and the fluctuations of prices affect the economy adversely. To alleviate such adverse effects, the financial sector needs reforms because it offers smoother transition into the envisioned economic setup. A challenge facing Russia and other countries as they transit from command economy to the free market economy is imbalance created by foreign trade. These countries have begun to import goods that were in short supply but on the other hand exports have began to decline. This slows down the recovery process since exports spurred growth previously. When the exports are more than the imports, a country is performing well economically and this is reverse for these former Soviets. Consumption growth had for a time led to an increment is real wages but productivity growth has stagnated those gains. This again is due to the heavy reliance on the oil industry for economic growth (Barnard, 2000). In addition, there is little investment outside the oil and metal industries. This means that as much as the motive is to create wealth for the citizenly, there cannot be much success if no considerable investment is made. In fact investments in other areas has been declining over time. The investment climate in Russia is still hostile which slows down the ability of the reform process to spur growth. The economic system only favor large business establishments leaving small and medium sized enterprises struggling. The governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s authorization requirements are stringent while corruption has been rife. This has led to more resources being allocated to large firms. With the medium sized enterprises grounded, no much growth can be achieved. The banking system is also inefficient since it only lends to the large establishments. The reform of the banking sector has largely depended upon political climate but a legal framework is needed to effectively reform this sector. A better framework to regulate the banking industry has to be put in place (Kahan, 2001). The reform process of the Russian and other former Soviet countries are on the right track. There are enough challenges in the implementation process of the proposals but they are gaining ground. Under performing areas have shown indications of growth. The recovery process, though, calls for political will among the leaders to drive the process. No much progress would be realized if political will is lacking. The effects of the Cold War need to be eliminated from the fore. The Russian economy has great potential and if the strategies respond appropriately to upcoming issues, the Russian economy would perform better. The Russian economy performance had put Russia ahead of other countries. It was not entity based on wrong principles. The major problem was the bureaucratic system that had been set that made it difficult to respond to rising issues. If the economy is to acquire the envisioned status it once had, it has to respond to arising issues.
Sufi Dervish Whirling Analysis Essay Sufi whirling is a form of Sama which originated among Sufis. It is a worship ceremony in which performers spin their bodies while listening to music, in an aim to focus on God. This essay will state the inner meaning, which is focusing on God, of the Sufi whirling through analyzing the ritualÃ¢â¬â¢s movement, symbols and mood. Sufi whirling is a ritual performed by dervishes, as it is originated among Sufis. They are usually performed inside or outside temples. Performers wear semazenÃ¢â¬â¢s camels hair hat(sikke), a white shirt and skirt. The skirt is made of billowing material that flows out and around the dancer as they spin. Movement refers to the performersÃ¢â¬â¢ body movements, as well as their body gestures. PerformersÃ¢â¬â¢ movement enables audiences to know about an inner emotive state or feeling of the performers. In the Sufi whirling ritual, the woman spins outside a temple while listening to music during daytime. Her spinning is stable and smooth, as her arms reach out to balance herself. It shows that she only concentrates on the spinning, as well as the God. As planets and stars circle the sun, and they are created by God, she turns counterclockwise around herself, to show her beliefs in God. The performers movement shows the inner meaning of the performance, which is focusing on and believing in God. (Mevlevi Order of America, 2009) Mood refers to atmosphere created by the performers, and also the feeling of both performers and audiences. Getting the mood of the performance is helpful to get to know the meaning of the performance. In the Sufi whirling ritual, the woman is spinning outside a temple during daytime, trying to focus on God. She is calm and relaxed, which shows the meditation and connection to God. The audiences do not applaud during the show, but watching the performance in silence with faith. The atmosphere, as well as the mood of the performers and audiences, shows that the Sufi whirling ritual is a spiritual act in which its only aim is abandon the ones nafs, egos or personal desires, and focus on God. The connection between God and the performers which is shown in the ritual shows that the performers perform the ritual to show their appreciation and beliefs in God. (Sufism and Dervishes) Symbolism refers to anything that has significant meaning in the performance. Understanding what a symbol represents helps us get to know the whole meaning of the performance. In the Sufi whirling ritual performance, a woman spins outside a temple, with her left hand down and right hand up, during the daytime. Her right arm is directed to the sky, ready to receive the GodÃ¢â¬â¢s beneficence, while her left hand upon which her eyes are fastened , is turned toward the Earth. This gestures show the respect and beliefs of the dervishes to God and their appreciation to the planet, which is also created by God. The symbolism shown in the Sufi whirling ritual shows the performers are focusing on God and abandon their egos, nafs and personal desires through spinning their bodies. In conclusion, the movement shows that the dervishes are focusing on and believing in God through performing the ritual. Moreover, through analyzing the mood and atmosphere of the performance, we can see that both the performers and audiences are faithful in God, and the ritual is a spiritual act in which the performers and audiences are trying to connect to God. On the other hand, through studying the symbolism in the Sufi whirling ritual, we get to know that performers are performing the ritual to foucus on God and abandon their egos and personal desires. All in all, the aim of performing the ritual is to abandon ones nafs, egos or personal desires and focus on God, by listening to the music and spinning oneÃ¢â¬â¢s body. References Mevlevi Order of America (2009) The Sema of the Mevlevi. http://www.hayatidede.org/popups/about_sema.htm Sufism and Dervishes http://www.whirlingdervishes.org/whirlingdervishes.htm
Leading Managing People Expatriate Essay Multinational firms throughout the world are increasingly concerned about hiring, developing and retaining managers with international experience and global perspectivesÃ¢â¬ quoted by Briscoe and Schuler in 2004. This report will be focusing on variety of issues relating to Human Resource implications which faced by the expatriate working in MNC located in Malaysia as well as Malaysian working in overseas. The extraction will be from the most recent newspaper, journal and articles relating to the following topics in human resource management. 1) Expatriate Failure and the Selection policy 2) Training and development for cross-cultural 3) Performance appraisal for expatriate The expatriation was subjugated by professionals sent by their employers to foreign subsidiaries or headquarters. 3. 0 KEY ISSUES AND ANALYSIS 3. 1 Expatriate Failure and the Selection policy Expatriate facade many new challenges both in the workplace and the community. For instance, culture shock differences in work-related norms, isolation, homesick, housing, schooling, language, customs, cost of living and coping with his/her spouseÃ¢â¬â¢s problems of adapting to new environment. According to Stone(2008), research indicates that a managerÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to adapt or their partnerÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to adapt is the major cause of expatriate failure. Harvey(1983) cited the consequence include premature return from a foreign posting and high resignation rates, with expatriates leaving their company at about twice the rate of domestic managements. Tung (1987) expounded the three main reasons contributing to the failure of expatriates in US MNC is as follows:- * the inability of the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s spouse to adjust to a different physical or cultural environment; * the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s inability to adapt to a different physical or cultural environment; * other family-related problems. One study by International Orientation Resources, an HRM consulting firm, found that 60 percent of expatriate failures occur due to these three reasons too(Solomon,1994). Besides the above mentioned reasons, include inappropriate selection practices, inadequate preparation and training as well as the stresses associated with expatriation which identified by New Zealand research (Enderwick and Hodgson, 1993). Another critical reason is the cross-cultural communications can be a struggle for the international manager. Gestures, facial expressions, behaviour and words can have different meanings and connotations. China, Korea and Japanese have high-context cultures where considerable importance is given to non-verbal and situational cues. In contrast, Australia, Canada, the US and Britain have low-context cultures where what is said is what it meant(Stone,2008). In contrast, some Malaysians who work aboard feel that the grass is greener on the other side. In Appendix A, this article highlighted the reasons why some Malaysian prefer to remain overseas. Due to higher paid, to widen their horizons, the prestige of working in a foreign company and the quality of life is unbeatable. The expatriate is unable to adapt in the foreign environment due to lack of cultural skills. According to HRM consulting firm, this is because the expatriate selection process at many organisations is essentially flawed (Solomon, 2000). Expatriates failed because these three focal reasons which mentioned by Tung that have not been part of the selection process. The underlying message was that the family is the basic unit of expatriation, not the individual. The MNC needs to look into this matter seriously in order to reduce expatriate failure. 3. 2 Training and development for cross-cultural Many companies including MNC have been ignored on providing training for employees whether local or global organisations. MNC recruits expatriate based on technical competence and past job performance as the key selection criteria and assumed the expatriate is able to adapt in the country where he was posted. MNC should not take them for granted. They should be pre-prepared by providing orientation, training on the cultural, language and living skill in the host country. Shown in Appendix D, expatriate reports interviewed an expatriate working in Nanchang, China on how significant was the culture shock he experienced when he moved abroad? He replied that quite significant and hard to adapt to the Chinese food and people spitting on the streets. Certainly, at the initial stage every expatriate will face cultural shock difference which may lead to miscommunication, misunderstanding and misinterpretation. Then directly he will be unproductive, inefficiency and faces expatriate failure. The MNC has to recruit a new manager to replace him which will be time consuming and have to repeat the process of selection and hiring. The MNC requires the expatriate to train the local employees in the host-country by transferring his knowledge and skills to them so that they are able to be independent and step into the positions/responsibilities within the shortest possible time. The article in Appendix B highlighted Malaysia government will review the education system to produce talent needed for an advanced nation and also perks to lure home highly skilled Malaysians (brain drain) and retain global talent to develop a quality workforce. Even our government recognise the essential of education/training to develop our highly skilled employees that are not only vital to the companies but also making the nation into globally competitive and transforming it as the high-income economy for instance Singapore, HK and Shanghai. 3. Performance appraisal for expatriate Stone (2008) cited that performance appraisal is a matter of serious concern for many expatriates. This is because performance appraisal is often handled badly. Companies fail to take into account the added complexities that come with international appraisals. Key issues involving performance expectations, performance measures and who will be responsible for the conduct of the appraisals are left vague or undecided. Worse, some head office managers ignore the international appraisal and do not incorporate it into the career development process. The end result is that expatriates perceive the appraisal process as unfair and as a source of never-ending frustration. Groeschi (2003) quotes that a number of comparative international and cross-cultural management research projects have concluded that HRM is influenced by culture. He also highlighted the same HRM policy is likely to be attributed quite different meanings by different cultural groups for instance performance appraisal. An organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance appraisal systems are an important element of its control systems, which is a central component of organisation architecture (see Figure 1 as below). In many international companies, the thorny issue is how best to evaluate the performance of expatriate managers (Hill, 2009). During the appraisal evaluation for the expatriate, there are two groups who evaluate the performance of expatriate managers. They are host-nation manager and home-office managers whom are subject to bias. The host-nation managers may be biased by their own cultural frame of reference and expectations. On the other hand, home-country mangersÃ¢â¬â¢ appraisals may be biased by distance and by their own lack of experience working abroad. Home-office managers often not aware of what is going on in a foreign operation and they tend to rely on hard data in evaluating an expatriateÃ¢â¬â¢s performance, such as the productivity, revenues, profitability or market share which reflect factors outside the expatriateÃ¢â¬â¢s control. Due to such biases, many expatriate managers believe that headquarters management evaluates them unfairly and does not fully appreciate the value of their skills and experience. It also one of the reasons many of them believe a foreign posting does not benefit their careers (Hill, 2009). 4. 0 RECOMMENDATION 4. 1 Expatriate Failure and the Selection policy Managing a MNC provides a diversity of challenges which the crucial one will be how the parent-company will recruit potential expatriate to manage their off-shore operations affiliates/subsidiaries. Selection of the expatriate must be right at the first time although time and resources consuming in reviewing and evaluating all the potential candidates follow by filtering them. The expatriate should not be selected based on technical competence and past job performance as the key selection criteria. Expatriate failure in many cases is the result of a lack of personal adjustment rather than a lack of technical skills. Harvey (1997) cited furthermore, research shows that in many companies expatriate selection is often haphazard and irrational. Organisations need to understand that in choosing expatriates, they should take into account differences in the business, social and cultural environment in the specific country and the impact on the potential expatriate, spouse and dependants (Stone, 2008). StoneÃ¢â¬â¢s (1991) study found that both local managers and expatriate managers perceive the essential selection criteria as the expatriateÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to adapt and the adaptability of the partner and family. 4. Training and management development for cross-cultural According to Hill (2009), superior performance requires not only strategy must also be supported by the right organisation architecture. Strategy is implemented through organisation. In Figure 1, people are the linchpin of a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s organisation architecture. For a firm to outperform its rivals in the global marketplace, it must have the right people in the right postings. Those people must be trained appropriately so they have the skill sets required to perform their jobs effectively and so they behave in a manner that is congruent with the desired culture of the firm. The following trainings are recommended for MNCsÃ¢â¬â¢ expatriates:- * Cross-Culture Training prior to departure The purpose of this training allows individuals to more rapidly adjust to the new culture before departing to host-country, and therefore, to be more effective in their new roles (Black and Mendenhall, 1990). It has been widely recognised for more than 20 years that the partners and children of expatriates play an important role in contributing to the success of expatriate assignments (Fukuda and Chu, 1994; Rahim, 1983) Cultural, Language and Practical(Living Skill) trainings * These trainings are helping to control and reduce expatriate failures. There is no question that comprehensive cultural training can have many benefits for MNCs. For starters, it can help orient and develop expatriates to better communicate, understand, and work effectively with people from different cultural, religious, and ethnic backgrounds. Comprehending and valuing cultural differences can al so help expatriates in the effective management of multi-cultural teams. Understanding global markets, customers, suppliers, and competitors is another indirect benefit. Pragmatically, cultural training can have a positive impact on combating very expensive expatriate failure (Luthans, 2002). Their spouse adaption problem, it is important that the spouse and the whole family to be included in this training * Language training usually conducted in host-countryÃ¢â¬â¢s language. When the expatriate willing to communicate in the host-country language(even not fluent), can help build rapport with local employees and improve the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s effectiveness. * Benefit of practical training in helping the expatriate manager and family ease themselves into daily life in the host country. The expatriate community group can be a great source of support and information sharing in helping the expatriateÃ¢â¬â¢s family adapt to a foreign culture. 4. 3 Performance appraisal for expatriate To overcome the expatriateÃ¢â¬â¢s frustration and problems, the HR manager needs to ensure that the following key issues are clarified before the expatriate begins an overseas assignment:- * What are the organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s performance expectations? * What criteria and standards will be used to measure performance? * Who will conduct the evaluation Ã¢â¬â a local manager, a head office manager or both? * What will be the frequency of the appraisals? What consideration will be given to local environmental influence? (for example, volatility of foreign exchange rate fluctuations, availability of skilled labour, political instability, corruption and so on) * Is the appraisal positively incorporated into the career development process? * Are head office managers cognisant of the local business environment? * Are there any cultural influences that may distort the measurement of the expatriateÃ¢â¬â¢s performance? In order to overcome the biases of the two groups who evaluate the expatriate managersÃ¢â¬â¢ performance, it is recommended to implement 360-degree feedback.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Politics Essays Free Speech Movement Free Speech Movement Berkeley, 1964: An analysis of the Free Speech Movement and its role in creating a new genre of conflict on American Campuses. Bibliography Introduction P71-2: Ã¢â¬Å"The Regents of the university, meeting the day before the Christmas recess began, declared that they Ã¢â¬Å"do not contemplate that advocacy or content of speech [on the Berkeley campus] shall be restricted beyond the purview of the First and Fourteenth Amendments to the constitution,Ã¢â¬ and set up a committee to review university policies in consultations with faculty and students Ã¢â¬Å"with the intent of providing maximum freedom consistent with individual and group responsibilityÃ¢â¬ (After an earlier meeting, on November 20, during which thousands of students were sitting outside being led by Jon Baez in singing, the Regents had said that their policy was to make campus facilities available for Ã¢â¬Å"planning, implementing or raising funds or recruiting participants for lawful off-campus action, not for unlawfulÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ) The emergency executive committee of the Berkeley division of the academic senate (the faculty) issued an optimistic statement after the RegentÃ¢â¬â¢s meeting, asserting the substantial progress had been made. 72: To begin with, we must dispose of the ingeniously slogan of Ã¢â¬Å"free speechÃ¢â¬ which has made it possible for so many who are far from the events at Berkeley to send in forthright statements in support of the Free Speech Movement or the position adopted by the faculty on December 8 (that political advocacy or organisation should be limited only by minimum regulations designed to permit the university to function normally) In 1964 The conflict at the Berkeley campus of the University of California warrants analysis not only as a striking, historic event, but because of what followed on other university campuses. Berkeley was the first instance of a new genre of conflict between students and authority. Many of the ensuing confrontations at other North American universities were direct products of the Berkeley conflict and in those that cannot be said to be direct products of the 1964 conflict; one can still see the influences Berkeley has had in the way the conflict has unfolded and evolved. This dissertation proposes Chapter 2: Foundations for Conflict The Free Speech Movement made Berkeley a pacesetter for student confrontations with authority. However, in the years preceding the 1964 student rebellion, the Berkeley campus of the University of California had also set the pace in developing a new form of university system, developing especially successful example patterns of organisation that had begun to change the higher education system in mid-twentieth century America. President of the Berkeley campus of the University of California, Clark Kerr, regarded the university as a means of producing Ã¢â¬ËknowledgeÃ¢â¬â¢, obviously not a radical idea. However, KerrÃ¢â¬â¢s definition of Ã¢â¬Å"knowledgeÃ¢â¬ is not a definition of an abstract concept as one would expect. Instead he saw knowledge as a Ã¢â¬Å"productÃ¢â¬ . He stated that, The production, distribution, and consumption of `knowledge in all its forms is said to account for 29 percent of gross national product . . . and `knowledge production is growing at about twice the rate of the rest of the economy. . . . What the railroads did for the second half of the last century and the automobile for the first half of this century may be done for the second half of this century by the knowledge industry: that is, to serve as the focal point for national growth. These patterns of organisation may have created a more economical and efficient university, but there effect on the students were not so positive. Because of the nature of the changes, the students, led by leaders of student political organisations, began to feel like this new university system had begun to encroach upon their basic rights of free speech. Obviously then, the changes in BerkeleyÃ¢â¬â¢s organisational structure and the political conflict which was to follow are not unrelated. Indeed, it can be said that the changes in the university, both in terms of its policy and its physical layout, contributed significantly in engendering a conflict at Berkeley. Therefore, if we are to fully understand the reasons for the sudden intensification of student activism at Berkeley, we must first investigate these organisational and policy changes which occurred at the university before the pinnacle of activism in 1964. These changes facilitated the organisation of students by political groups and for political action, making political activism relevant to students (as the nature of the changes meant that they were protesting against something which directly affected them) and encouraging innovation within student political organisations. As the remonstrations with the university began to take hold in the general university community, both with students and faculty, the instigated changes also served as a catalyst for student political groups to escalate confrontations with power interests in the larger community. Prior to the changes, political groups on campus were fighting simply for their own causes. However, by providing a shared grievance which affected nearly all students to some extent (and at a fundamental level), the changes effectively unified the student body under a common interest. Doing so created a faction comprised of student political groups, sympathetic faculty, and individual students who all opposed the changes made by the university. As an opponent, this group posed significantly more threat to the Berkeley administration than a dissonant collection of multifarious political organisations and, therefore, we must regard these organisational changes as a mistake. Ultimately, these mistakes would generate a movement which both undermined the university administration at Berkeley, and pioneered a new form of student protest whose effects can be seen in most subsequent student rebellions. We must first look at the administration-initiated changes which made the campus at Berkeley structurally conductive to the recruitment of students for collective political action. The formation of a support base of students who are sympathetic with a political cause is the fundamental process in the developing of a significant student political movement. Whilst the Berkeley campus of the University of California had been a relatively large school for many years, the influx of veterans after World War II saw the campus population swell to 25,325 students in the autumn of 1947. After a drop in the student population (the low birth rate of the depression saw the enrolment statistics drop to 17,563 students in 1953) the university enrolment reached 26,757 in 1963 and this figure was expected to remain fairly constant for the foreseeable future. In addition to the increase in numbers at the University, there was also a change in the proportions of students at varying stages of their education. As the enrolment reached its peak in 1963, the ration of undergraduates to graduate students was almost 1:1. This change in university population called for a change in the organisational systems of the university as it now had to deal not only with a greater volume of students, but also with students who had differing relationships with the university. The policies created by the university to deal with the change in the composition of the university population worked in conjunction with each other to make mass political activity more likely. At the heart of the reforms at Berkeley was the California Master Plan for Higher Education which created a new admissions policy for the university. In order to be admitted to Berkeley, a student had to be in the top 12.5% of High School graduates, allowing the university to attract a high number of intellectual young students. These new students were also enrolling in the departments of humanities and social sciences, with the percentage of new undergraduates enrolled in these subjects reaching a peak of 50% in 1962. The result of this shift was that the departments of subject areas which had traditionally provided the liberal, radical student leaders of political groups gained a disproportionate increase in students. The increase in enrolment numbers, combined with the materials taught in classes offered by the humanities and social sciences departments, meant that students were exposed to subject matter dealing with moral and social issues which could therefore evoke more liberal political attitudes. Also, as such degree schemes offer no specific vocation after completion of their studies, the students take a less career-orientated approach to university life and could be more experimental in the organisations they choose to join and the topics they choose to study. As Berkeley continued to expand in terms of the student populace, there were also expansions in the university campus itself. The increased volume of literature and students necessitated the need for expansions of the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s library facilities. The main library was not able to deal with the requirements of the entire student population and therefore, subject-specific libraries were created, relieving the pressure on the main library building. This meant that natural sciences students tended to stay within the confines of their own subject libraries and as a result, the main library building increasingly became a meeting point and discussion area for the humanities and social sciences students and faculty. In addition to relocating some of the library facilities, in 1960, the university cafeteria, book store, Student Union and general common leisure area were moved to a block of land adjoining the university south of Sather Gate. This shifted the focal point for much of the universityÃ¢â¬â¢s social scene to land which was considered the natural territory of humanities and social studies students. More importantly, the land was also adjacent to an area traditionally used for political recruiting. Obviously, this brought many more students into contact with radical political groups, canvassing for a variety of causes, exposing them to moral and social issues outside their field of study. Therefore, not only did politics gain a new audience of impressionable youth at Sather Gate, but also had the ability (with this new audience) to attract students who were already sensitive to such political nuances. Berkeley is a tax-supported institution and, as such, there is a duality in the way that it operates. On one side, there is free inquiry and the ability to of expression based on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own perceptions. However, it is also expected to show no political bias which may offer political advantage to any one political group at the expense of the general public. These regulations go back to a time where no political activity of any kind was allowed on campus. Under this earlier situation, not even candidates for the presidency were allowed to speak at Berkeley. In theory, this situation should have been resolved by the California State constitution, which prohibited religious or political canvassing and which gave the responsibility of university policy-making to a Board of Regents, stating: The University of California shall constitute a public trust, to be administered by the existing corporation known as The Regents of the University of California, with full powers of organization and government, subject only to such legislative control as may be necessary to insure the security of its funds and compliance with the terms of the endowments of the universityÃ¢â¬ ¦ Regents shall be able persons broadly reflective of the economic, cultural, and social diversity of the State, including ethnic minorities and women. However, it is not intended that formulas or specific ratios be applied in the selection of regentsÃ¢â¬ ¦ The university shall be entirely independent of all political or sectarian influence and kept free therefrom in the appointment of its regents and in the administration of its affairs, and no person shall be debarred admission to any department of the university on account of race, religion, ethnic heritage, or sex. However, although the Board of Regents act as a buffer between the university and the political pressures of interest groups within the state, 1964-1965 school year, the twenty four members of the University of CaliforniaÃ¢â¬â¢s Board of Regents were not politically impartial. The board chairman was president of the largest chain of department stores in the West. Other members included the chairman of Bank of America, the chairman of the largest gold-mining corporation, a vice-president of Lockheed Aviation, the board chairman of two oil companies, a past chairman of the Republican States Central Committee, a Democratic Party Career woman, a national labour leader, and a past president of the state bar association. Therefore, the existence of the Board of Regents did not protect the university from the political currents of the time. In order to maintain a politically neutral environment on campus, a series of regulations were drafted. These regulations, known as Rule 17, stated that political positions were to be analysed in class, but faculty were not to take a position of favour for or against them. These regulations would therefore allow free discussion of political positions, without jeopardising BerkeleyÃ¢â¬â¢s position of impartiality. However, it is here that the university made a clear distinction between free speech and free advocacy of action based on political ideas. Advocacy of political positions was not permitted on campus, unless administrative approval was given and representation of the converse position was present at the same time in order to give a counter argument. In the same vein, funds for off campus causes could not be gathered on campus without permission from the university administrators. However, the off-campus actions of the student body were not controlled by these regulations. An off campus political organisation could run a meeting on campus, but it would have to explain to the students present that certain kinds of discussion (for example, implementing a demonstration) must be held off campus. In this way the rights of the student to participate in off campus political advocacy was protected and the political neutrality of the Berkeley campus was maintained. However, the line between off-campus action and on campus-action was difficult to accentuate and any off-campus action which was deemed to be contentious and was participated in by Berkeley students or faculty was publicly perceived to also be occurring on campus as well. Rule 17, however, was not practically applicable, as was emphasised in 1956, when presidential candidate Adlai Stephenson spoke to a group of students via a loudspeaker mounted on a truck which was parked outside university walls (and therefore in compliance with the regulations) yet his speech could still be well observed by the students. This bizarre occurrence prompted students to seek amendments to Rule 17, and, after a protracted period of negotiation, political speakers were permitted to speak on campus without the necessity of an opponent (however, the administration added the caveat that the opposing position be represented on campus within a reasonable time limit). This amendment directly influenced the students who attended such organised events. Students were presented with a politically marginalised account and in order to hear the opposing viewpoint, attendance of a separate event was necessary, giving the speaker with the temporal upper-hand a clear advantage. The efforts of the university to distance itself from controversial political actions undertaken by students came under marked criticism, both from the students and the faculty. Conflicts with student political groups such as Slate prompted the university to pass legislation detrimental to the efforts of politically active students. For example, in 1959, the university administration ruled that graduate students were ineligible for voting, costing Slate the possibility of gaining control of the student government. In the summer of 1961, Slate was stripped of its on-campus status for violating the university regulation prohibiting a group which took an off campus stand from affiliating itself with the university. This loss of recognition was the beginning of the end for Slate and the leaders turned their attentions to the larger struggles of the community. The university policies which worked against politically active students at Berkeley began to create more widespread tension between the administration and the student body. The situation was close to boiling point. With the increase in off-campus student political activity and the seeds of discontent already sown amongst the general populace of the university, a escalation of student activism was expected. Furthermore, when viewed , and therefore necessitate discussion in order to extrapolate cogent. Chapter 3: Escalation The beginning of the escalation in student activism was prompted by the university choosing to enforce the distinction between free speech and advocacy. As the Student Union moved, so did the areas of political activity. The area around the new Student Union at the intersection of Bancroft and Telegraph had become the new rallying point for student political activists. However, upon receiving complaints of noise and littering, the vice-chancellor for student affairs, Alex C. Sherriffs, launched an inquiry into the legitimacy of the complaints. He found that the root of the noise was bongo drummers and the source of the litter was a mass of discarded leaflets handed out by the various student political groups in an effort to spread the word about their organisation. Sherriffs also found that people were setting up tables on university property, and, according to the regulations, such an activity in such a location was illegal. A conflict now arose between two unfairly matched opponents: the student political groups and the administration of the Berkeley campus of the University of California. Conflict is not uncommon on the Berkeley campus. There is a long established tradition of protest and picketing. However, in this instance, the protestors adopted a radically different style. The main reason for this departure from traditional methods of dissidence, in particular the development of new techniques of civil disobedience, is the Civil Rights Movement. The protests for racial equality have given rise to new tactics of protest. In 1963, hundreds of Berkeley students, Ã¢â¬Å"sat-inÃ¢â¬ at a chain of lunch counters, Ã¢â¬Å"shopped-inÃ¢â¬ at a chain of supermarkets (with students filling their shopping carts with food, letting the check-out operator tally the total, and then declaring that they did not have the money to pay for the goods) and lay down in the automobile showrooms of Van Ness Avenue. These types of protest led in each case to the establishment concerned hiring a certain amount of Negro workers. These radical new tactics clearly worked. They also led to mass arrests and mass trials, which although led to disciplinary action, further handicapped the bureaucratic procedures by placing the courtrooms of San Francisco under considerable stress. The situation produced and the emotions evoked by the civil rights movement amongst student political groups at Berkeley was markedly different from the mood that prevailed when such groups were fighting for the loosening of the strict regulations that which once governed their political activity. As well as introducing new tactics, the civil rights movement developed a large body of students committed to these tactics and a summoned up a substantial body of public opinion in the faculty and among the liberal population of the Berkeley area who were sympathetic to them. : The ChancellorÃ¢â¬â¢s office delegated on to the lesser members of the administrative hierarchy the decision that the area of political activity on Bancroft and Telegraph was now to become subject de facto (as it had been de jure) to the university ban on advocacy and organisation. This was obviously unsatisfactory to the students, and thus they resorted to a direct test of the administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s resolve to enforce the new regulations: they set up their tables and collected money, in flagrant violation of university regulations. A number were directed to appear before a dean on September 29 to discuss these violations. The official account to the chancellor of the faculty describes the situation that ensued, At 3 o clock that afternoon, some 300-400 students moved into the second floor of Sproul Hall and Mario Savio announced that all of them acknowledged violating university regulations in the same manner as those who had been instructed to make appointments with the dean of students, and they all wanted similar appointments. The Dean of Men then declared he was then concerned only with observed violations, and if students wanted appointments then they could leave their names and he would determine if and when such could be made. He also asked [the students who had been involved in observed in violations] to go in and see a dean because each had been involved in a matter of personal discipline, and requested that the crowd disperse, since he had scheduled a meeting of the leaders of the student organisations and their advisors to discuss the problem at 4 oc. Savio responded that the group would not leave unless they were guaranteed that the same disciplinary action would be meted out to all there. Unable to make such guarantees, the Dean of Men again asked the group to leave, and later announced that since, in the opinion of the administration and some of the advisors of the student political groups who had come to attend the 4:00 meeting, the environment was not conductive to reasonable discussion, the meeting was cancelledÃ¢â¬ ¦The group remained in Sproul Hall until 2:40am. This transformed the nature of the conflict and also marginalised the protestors. What began as a protest involving nearly all political groups, from revolutionary socialist to extreme conservative, was changed into a movement run almost entirely by the civil rights leaders. For as soon as the tactics of the process Ã¢â¬Å"escalatedÃ¢â¬ into questionably legal activities (like sitting in Sproul Hall, which was done for the first time on September 29th) the right-wingers could not go along. It was clear that the leadership of the movement was coming exclusively from the civil rights and left-wing political groups, but there were too few students directly committed to the left-wing groups to provide the necessary numbers for significant protest. Only the civil rights groups could evoke the emotions of the masses and raise hundreds ready to sit-in. On October 2 the movement gained their first victory: the withdrawal of the large concentration of police surrounding the campus, and a meeting with President Clark Kerr in which a pact was signed calling for an administration-faculty-student committee to deal with the issue of political activity. The movementÃ¢â¬â¢s next step was to organise itself internally. Confirming the fact that the right had withdrawn almost completely no right-orientated groups emerged with any positions of leadership within the movement. The civil rights leaders, who had become synonymous with direct action gained all the authority and as a result, the movement moved further to the left. Chapter 4: Negotiation and Resolution 83: As the leadership of the student movement became concentrated into a coherent force, sharing the same aims, philosophy and outlook, the university administration was becoming proportionally less organised. 88: In a situation first created by reasonable demands of the students and secondly by the new, radical tactics, the administration showed itself to be incapable of consistent, decisive or effective action. Again and again it was forced to withdraw from positions either because they were poorly argued or because the higher levels (President Kerr) moved in and changed the positions taken lower down. I feel it necessary to mention the role the faculty played in the resolution of the conflict at Berkeley, as their position was not insignificant. At the start of the rebellion, the faculty looked upon the conflict between the administration and the students as detached and neutral outsiders. However, some groups of faculty members placed themselves into the situation as mediators. They were distinguished from the great majority of their colleagues by the fact that they had been involved in student politics in the past and remained interested in their outcomes in the present. The first group of student mediators helped to draw up the pact of October the 2nd. However, the faculty, like the right-wing student political groups before them, eventually joined the list as casualties of the developing crisis. They became casualties owing to the critical change in the issues of the conflict that occurred around the beginning of November. This change became apparent in the discussions of the faculty-student-administration committee that had been set up by the October 2 pact. For the first month there had been two fairly straightforward issues: the attempt of the administration to change the status quo, which all the student political groups, left and right, and all interested faculty opposed; and secondly, the student tactics, which some of the student groups and most of the interested faculty opposed, but which everyone agreed should not lead to disciplinary action (on the ground that the original issue which had occasioned the tactics had been a just one). The problems were settled when the administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s representatives on the committee provisionally accepted a much wider range of political advocacy and organisation on campus than had been permitted before, when a second committee (faculty) set up under the October 2nd pact called for the lifting of the suspensions that had been pronounced against the students who had violated the old regulations. Up until this point, the interested faculty members and the student FSM leaders had stood together. But now the student leaders and the administration raised a new issue, created by the possible liberalisation of the rules. If Berkeley was opened up to advocacy and organisation, what of advocacy and organisation that led to illegal action or was designed to produce illegal action? The administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s insistence on a line between legal and illegal was immediately seen by students as a threat to actions they were already planning. The student leaders fully expected further mass arrests as a result of these actions, and they hoped to protect themselves from university discipline. It was this issue of illegal action which caused the faculty-student-administration committee to split in November. The student representatives insisted on a specific guarantee that nothing they advocated or organised on campus would lead to any disciplinary measures by the university against them or their organisations. The administration members insisted on the right to discipline individuals or organisations who advocated or organised illegal action. The faculty group proposed a formula which neither gave the students a specific guarantee of immunity nor the administration a specific ban against illegal action on campus. Under this formula the students would have conducted their demonstrations and sit-ins in all likelihood safe from university interference, as the universityÃ¢â¬â¢s policy of the year before had been not to discipline those arrested for civil rights activities, and it seemed improbable that this policy would be changed. If, however, the university decided on a change, the students could have tested in the courts its right to punish them for illegal action advocated or organised on campus, a contingency which, they asserted, would be Ã¢â¬Å"against the 1st and 14th amendmentsÃ¢â¬ and would constitute Ã¢â¬Å"double jeopardy.Ã¢â¬ On this issue the students decided to revoke the pact of October 2 (in which they had agreed to only execute to legal actions), pronounced new rules to govern political activity on campus, and began to operate under them. The students now hoped that the Regents would give them what the committee set up under the pact of October 2 had not, but on November 20, the Regents insisted on maintaining the distinction between lawful and unlawful actions. At this point the student leaders split, some arguing for further drastic measures, other urging de facto acceptance of the new rules under which they had full freedom of action. A new sit-in was staged at Sproul Hall, which involved only 300 hundred students; the administration did not act against it, and it was called off after a few hours. However, on November 30, it was learned that the administration had summoned 4 student leaders to appear before the Faculty Committee on Student Conduct to hear charges against them stemming from their tussles with the police on October 1st and 2nd. As a result of this blunder, an issue that was capable of arousing the students i.e., the disciplining of their leaders, was fortuitously tied to one that could not i.e., immunity for advocacy or organisation of illegal action. Once again, on Dec 2, students occupied Sproul Hall. In the early morning of December 3, a small army of police began carrying out around 800 students. That afternoon, yet another impromptu group of mediating faculty, the department chairmen, met to formulate a compromise which offered full amnesty to the students for the actions of the past 2 months; they hoped to sell this to the President and the Regents. On Dec 4, a long threatened strike of teaching assistants was launched, and on Sunday, Dec 6, the President and the Regents accepted the department chairmenÃ¢â¬â¢s compromise. However, by this time the student leaders had glimpsed the possibility of gaining complete success. A number of liberal faculty members had been preparing a resolution which asserted that political activity on campus should be regulated only in terms of Ã¢â¬Å"time, place, and mannerÃ¢â¬ in order not to interfere with the functioning of the university, and they were rounding up support for its adoption. The larger part of the faculty had now become involved, because they had been forced to confront and take a stand on the strike of their teaching assistants. The students hoped that the faculty resolution supporting their position would pass and they joined its faculty drafters in campaigning for it. On December 7 the compromise negotiated by the department chairmen was presented by Professor Robert Scalopino and President Kerr to the student body and faculty. The radicalisation of the students, thousands of whom had participated in sit-ins, strikes, and picketing, had proceeded at frightening pace over the weekend; full victory was now seen as possible, and the compromising was denounced by the student leaders as a Ã¢â¬Å"sell-out.Ã¢â¬ Because of their desperate desire to settle things, because of their experience of one administration failure after another, many of the faculty were by now ready to accept any agreement that might lead to peace. The administration was absent and silent when 1000 members of the Academic Senate met on Dec 8 and by a huge vote endorsed the resolution of the liberal faculty members mentioned above. This resolution, in addition to backing the view that political ac