Friday, May 31, 2019

Comparing the Three Statues of David Essay -- Donatello Michelangelo

Comparing the Three Statues of David The pieces of art I will be comparing and contrasting are the three statues of David, by Donatello (Donato di Niccol di Betto Bardi), Michelangelo (Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni), and Bernini (Gian Lorenzo Bernini). The statues are modeled after the biblical David, who was destined to become the second king of Israel. Also most famously kn accept as the slayer of the Philistine giant Goliath with a stone and a sling. The sculptures are all based on the same biblical hero, but differ from one another. Each David is unique in its own certain way.A good deal is known about Donatellos life and career, but little is known about his character. Donatello was born in Florence, Italy in 1386 and died in 1466 he was never married and had no children. He was a master of sculpture in bronze and marble and is considered to be one of the greatest Italian Renaissance artists of his time. The first sculpture is of Donatello?s David, 1425-1430. Its ma terial is bronze and stands 5? 2 ? and is currently located at Museo Nazionale del Bargello, Florence. The sculpture is a nude and is contrapposto. The sentiment being depicted is after the clash with Goliath. Donatello?s statue of David was the first large scale, free-standing nude statue of the Renaissance. The sculpture helps to strike a balance between classicism and the pragmatism by presenting a very real image of a boy in the form of a classical nude figure. Although Donatello was inspir...

Fitting In :: essays research papers

Fitting in     Fitting in is an important part of life because it has almost everythingto do with turning out in life. Knowing the mighty good deal allow for directly effect apersons life later on, job wise and high school reunions.     Part of tantrumting in is rejection. This happens because when somebody doesnot reject a particular person then they might be rejected for not rejectingthat person. "... waking up in the morning and wonder if anyone would re bothymiss me." this is a thought that might course through someones mind after beingrejected. Most people respond differently, Some people might dress and acttotally different just to try to "fit in" that way. Most will just forget aboutthat congregation or single person. I have often observed that people often times tryto find out why that person or group rejected them and try to make it better.Being rejected is like someone saying "You do not fit in with us so lea ve usalone" its a nasty feeling. Some people let others down easy and that is nice ofthem.     Why is it so hard to fit in? There is so much social pressure now thatit is getting harder and harder to "fit in". When I say social pressure I meanhow to act, look, sound, walk, and so on. Clothes play a very important role infitting in with the crowd. People say that a number 1 impression is the mostimportant one so people try to make the best first impression by dressing up orshowing someone there not. Some people try to stay in fashion, they do this tostand out or be noticed. A Brobdingnagian role in fitting in is changing or, in otherwords, being someone you are not. To describe this I think of putting on a maskover your whole body. Some people just spend all day "lying there and thinkingabout all the stupid things Ive done today."     Lastly, being liked by other people is what "fitting in" is all about.Like I said before, you change yourself, dramatically sometimes, just to fit in.Changing yourself might include dress, hair, self. Changing yourself might justmake it harder to fit in so people just nog to what they have changedthemselves since they do not know what else to do. Often people wonder "What ifI say this to them, well if I say this then they might not like me. Eventhough...." Emotional stress can damage a person so much they just do not careanymore. Individuals will do amazing things just to achieve "Fitting in" after

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Industrial revolution :: essays research papers

industrial whirling (Extra Credit)The era known as the Industrial Revolution was a period in which essential changes occurred in agriculture, textile, metal manufacture, transportation, economic policies and the social structure in England. This period is appropriately labeled revolution, for it thoroughly changed the old manner of doing things and bringing up reinvigorated techniques. Constantly improving the ways in which things were made, which had effects of cutting costs and improving quality and efficiency was revolutionary about the era. The changes that occurred during this period occurred gradually. Industrial Revolution did not happen suddenly it happened spread out the centuries. It wasnt only inventions but mostly improvement and new techniques to present inventions. Advances in agricultural techniques and practices resulted in an increased supply of food and cranky materials, changes in industrial organization and new technology resulted in increased production, eff iciency and profits, and the increase in commerce, overseas and domestic, were all conditions which promoted the advent of the Industrial Revolution. The alter yield of the agricultural sector can be attributed to the enclosure movement and to improved techniques and practices developed during this period. A everyday practice in early agriculture was to allow the land to lie fallow after it had been exhausted through cultivation. Later it was discovered that the cultivation of clover and other legumes would help to restore the fertility of the soil. Prior to 1760 the manufacture of textiles occurred in the homes, by people who gave part of their time to it. It was a tedious process from raw material to finished product. Many of the stages of production were performed by women and children. The supply of raw material for the woolen industry was obtained domestically. In the cases of silk and cotton, the raw materials were obtained from foreign sources, such as, China, the westmo st Indies, North American and Africa. John Kays flying-shuttle, which enabled one weaver to do the work of two, and Richard Arkwrights roller spinner, which was to make spinning more efficient and jam Hargreaves jenny, a device which enabled the operator to simultaneously spin dozens of threads, was readily adopted. Arkwright and others developed the water frame. Coal was the one of the most important material during Industrial Revolution. It was the black gold of the eighteenth century. Underground mining was extremely dangerous and risky. Improvements in coal mining came in the form of improved tunnel ventilation, improved underground and surface transportation, and the use of gunpowder to blast away at the coal seams, and improved tunnel illumination through the use of lamps.

Women in Art Essay -- Arts Females Gender Artistic Painting Essays

Women in Art Throughout history many nice works make up been deemed great and many individuals have been labeled masters of the discipline. The question of who creates art and how is it to be classified as great or greater than another has commonly been addressed by scholars and historians. The last quarter of the 20th century has reexamined these questions based on the assertions that no women artists have ever created or been comprehended to the level of greatness that perpetu bothy befalls their male counterparts. The position that society has institutionalized on women as unable to be anything but subordinate and unexpressive is a major contributor to this claim. Giving a brief history of gender discrimination in the art field, examining different theories in regard to why women have been excluded from art history throughout the ages, and finally, discussing the contributions and progress that women artists and historians have achieved in the past two decades, will help to better understand the complexity and significance of women artists. The former(a) years of the 1990s mark the 20th anniversary of the womens movement in art. The exact date of the movement can not be ascertained due to the item that there was such an immense number of things happening for the Womens Liberation movement at that time. Nevertheless, the achievements of the 1970s womens art movement were enormous and it is one of the most influential movements of that decade. 20 years later, the struggle for representation in the arts continues. In 1990, a U.S. study was conducted on Gender Discrimination in the Artfield. The results are as follows 50.7% of all visual artists are female and women hold 53.1% of the degrees in art,... ...Feminist Art. Harry N. Abrams, Inc, 1994. Chadwick, Whitney. Women, Art, and Society (revised edition). Thames and Hudson Inc., 1996. Freud, Sigmund. Femininity. Feminist Frameworks. Ed. Jaggar and Rothenberd. McGraw-Hill, 1978. 9 1-98. Morse, Marcia. Feminist Aesthetics and the Spectrum of Gender. Philosophy East & West 42(April 1992) 287-289. Nochlin, Linda. Why declare There Been No Great Women Artists? (1971). In Women, Art, and Power, and Other Essays. Harper & Row, 1988. Portwood, Pamela. Feminist Views Schapiro helps female artists shed their cloaks of anonymity. The Arizona Daily Star. 19 Feb, 1999. Starlight 6E. Strawter, Lisa Marie. Facts About Women in the humanistic discipline Women Artists Archive Online Available. http//libweb.sonoma.edu/special/waa/, (accessed April 19, 1999).

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Essay --

Over the last 30 years, videos games have become in truth desirable for people of all ages, genders, and race. With the rapid growth of technology these games have become very life like and some seem as if your actually in that respect in person. The rapid growth has made the video industry into a multi-billon dollar industry and this has created much controversy among the people because the games are decent very realistic, but also more violent. Since the creation of violent video games there have been constant disputes to whether these games will increase emphasis in the player. Nevertheless, there have been researches done to try and understand the correlation between video games and violence. These researches havent only showed that the violent games dont transfer violence to the players, but they actually help players.With the rise of technology people have begin to drift away from connecting in person and have adapt to this variegate by speaking or communicating threw som ething electronics. With games like call of duty and many others, players are able to communicate with many others, th...

The Only Fish I Wanted To Catch :: essays research papers

The Only Fish I Wanted To CatchA sensory faculty of astounding warmth enshrouded my mind and body as I blankly stared out on to the choppy lake. I realized that the blinding sun was confident(predicate) to burn me by the end of the day. I was completely clueless as to where the day would take me. At first I was a little upset about climbing into the small rowboat and heading out there for the entire day. What if I didnt make it back? I had never been angle alone. All I craved was to catch the perfect fish. It didnt have to be big or fat, just perfect for me. So I mustered up the courage and took a chance. The last time I had taken a chance I had paid for it dearly. Sarina was the perfect girl, and I was determined to let her experience how I felt about her. She didnt make me happy. Happiness was not exactly the emotion she brought out in me. Her presence brought out something within me that was overmuch deeper and more sincere. She was the foundation of my utopia. She had a sp ecial quality about her. Most people I know walk around with their souls being held prisoner by their bodies. She was one of those unique people whose body was held captive by her soul. Thirty seconds out of every minute I thought about her. I unceasingly made sure she had everything. It took me six months before I could even tell her how I felt. When I finally told her how I felt she took the news really well, still I knew she wasnt interested. After telling me that our friendship was too close for us to get involved romantically, I swept up the pieces of my shattered heart, sic them in my pocket and walked away. I had her snagged on my hook but she threw it. I used kindness, and patience, and she used me. I gave her everything she asked of me. She took the bait and ran. She avoided me at all costs for the conterminous two months. Suddenly, I was at the mercy of the wide-open water of my misery, and was fearful of drowning. Had I been coerced into believing we were best friends ? We squandered for hours and hours resolving each others personal dilemmas. We called each other religiously on the phone when we were apart.

Einstein :: essays research papers fc

Albert Einstein, the smashing physicist and philosopher, was born in Germany 1879 in a Jewish family and his life must incessantly be commandn within the content of the provincial Swabian-folkways in a farming(prenominal) characteristic. Einsteins character was so simple that people were astonished that he was able to deduce such(prenominal) complex theories. His childhood also shows contradictions virtually his failure in shallow and rejection to teachers. The worlds genius, Einstein, never settled dismantle in one country nor admired Hitler as most of German people. Although he was a simple and optimistic character his life doesnt mull over a normal stable attitude. As a child, Alberts parents feared that he might be retarded child since he wasnt able to piffle before he was three-year old he also continued to defend trouble in speaking fluently for several years. In elementary school his performance was so bad that his parents were sure that he was mentally retarded. Hi s classmates and teachers use to call him names because of his peculiar attitude such as repeating his suffer words and observing the ceilings for such a long time. Alberts answer wasnt positive, he just isolated himself more. May be his failure in elementary school was due to the fact that he rejected to be taught by others. He preferred to teach himself instead. So when he was a teenager he taught himself advanced Mathematics and science. Einstein carried on with this pattern of strong-minded study for the rest of his life. His gravel, although a merchant, possessed an inclination for technical matters and so he managed an galvanising business where he invented and sold equipment such as dynamos and electrical lamps. He introduced Einstein to the mystery of matter when he gave him a compass at the age of four, which seemed to Einstein that it came from another world as it be suck upd in such a determined way that it didnt fit to his into the nature of events. He say this ex perience made a deep and lasting impression on me and he was so puzzled that he deduced that something deeply hidden had to be can buoy things (Albert Einstein Historical and cultural perspectives). Moreover, his father used to take him at the electromechanical fairs to present his electrical inventions. Perhaps such attitude from Alberts father had helped him to desire physics and imagine the unknown puzzles of the physical world. However, Albert didnt see an optimistic world through his mothers world as he saw through his fathers and hence she didnt have such impact on him as his father.Einstein essays research papers fc Albert Einstein, the great physicist and philosopher, was born in Germany 1879 in a Jewish family and his life must always be seen within the content of the provincial Swabian-folkways in a rural characteristic. Einsteins character was so simple that people were astonished that he was able to deduce such complex theories. His childhood also shows contradictions about his failure in school and rejection to teachers. The worlds genius, Einstein, never settled down in one country nor admired Hitler as most of German people. Although he was a simple and optimistic character his life doesnt reflect a normal stable attitude. As a child, Alberts parents feared that he might be retarded child since he wasnt able to talk before he was three-year old he also continued to have trouble in speaking fluently for several years. In elementary school his performance was so bad that his parents were sure that he was mentally retarded. His classmates and teachers used to call him names because of his peculiar attitude such as repeating his own words and observing the ceilings for such a long time. Alberts reaction wasnt positive, he just isolated himself more. May be his failure in elementary school was due to the fact that he rejected to be taught by others. He preferred to teach himself instead. So when he was a teenager he taught himself advanced Mathema tics and science. Einstein carried on with this pattern of independent study for the rest of his life. His father, although a merchant, possessed an inclination for technical matters and so he managed an electrical business where he invented and sold equipment such as dynamos and electrical lamps. He introduced Einstein to the mystery of matter when he gave him a compass at the age of four, which seemed to Einstein that it came from another world as it behaved in such a determined way that it didnt fit to his into the nature of events. He said this experience made a deep and lasting impression on me and he was so puzzled that he deduced that something deeply hidden had to be behind things (Albert Einstein Historical and cultural perspectives). Moreover, his father used to take him at the electromechanical fairs to present his electrical inventions. Perhaps such attitude from Alberts father had helped him to desire physics and imagine the unknown puzzles of the physical world. Howeve r, Albert didnt see an optimistic world through his mothers world as he saw through his fathers and hence she didnt have such impact on him as his father.

The Population Situation in China Essay examples -- Impact Cause Effec

The Population Situation in ChinaIntroduction A country is said to be overpopulated when the number of people in an area exceeds that areas resource capacity to sustain human activities at a decent modular of living.(1) When the people cannot be maintained with tabu rapidly depleting nonrenewable resources or converting renewable resources into nonrenewable resources quickly enough, measures must be taken either to control the world or increase the areas resources. The Peoples Republic of China experienced a population explosion after World War II that sent its population multiply to 550 million in 1950. The countrys growth of 14 million per year is equal to a new Australia every year.(2) With the rapidly developing population situation, the Chinese giving medication implemented many policies to curb the population growth. Many of such policies raised issues surrounding the repression of freedoms and the demeaning of human rights. This paper will outline the various reason s for Chinas population growth, its impact and the various governmental policies to control population. Chinas Population Distribution China has more people than any other country. By the end of 1995, whiz out of every five people in the world lives in China. China had a population of 1,211.21 million living on the mainland. By contrast, the United States, with the trio largest population, accounts for only one of every twenty people.(3) Chinas population density of 126 people per square kilometer (317 persons per square mile), according to the 1995 sample survey on one percent of Chinas population, is relatively high.(4) However, China does not have the highest population density in the world because of the countrys vast land r... ...ina.html China Today, http//www.chinaolympics.com/ctoday/populat.htm, 1996. One-Child Population Control policy of Communist China, http//www.forerunner.com/lci/X0004_Population_Control_C.html Palmer, M. The Re-emergence of Family Law in Post-M ao China Marriage, Divorce and Reproduction, 141 China Quarterly 110, 126 (March 1995). Peoples Republic of China Yearbook 1992-1993, No. 8 Rubenstein, J. M., An Introduction to Human Geography, fifth ed. (New Jersey Prentice Hall, 1996). The Center for Reproductive Law and Policy, Inc. Women of the World, http//www.echonyc.com/jmkm/wotw/china.popfam.html, 1995. World Resources Institute, Chinas Population Future, http//www.wri.org/wri/enved/giants/chi-pop.html, 1994-95. Xiao, Z., Integration of Population With Development Chinas Practice, China Population Today, August 1994.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Reader-Response Criticism of James Joyce’s Eveline from Dubliners Essay

A Subjective Reader-Response Criticism of James Joyces EvelineThe subjectiveness evident in literary interpretation is hard to deny. Though one person may feel that James Joyces writing proves Joyces realize of the feminist movement, another may believe that Joyce views women as inferior. What could account for much(prenominal) a difference in opinions? Schwarz explains that subjective reader-response critics would respond to a question such as this by answering that each reader uses the literary work to symbolize his or her own life and, therefore, each response is unique to the single(a) reader. He asserts that the reader will always find an identity theme in the particular text he or she is reading. Consequently, the text must be looked at in terms of the response it invokes in the reader, and what this response says about the readers own psychological needs (129). Several of James Joyces works are ideal for subjective reader-response analysis and, in particular, the story Evel ine from Dubliners. The story Eveline concerns a love affair between Eveline and a sailor, Frank, and Evelines disbelief about whether or not to run away with Frank to Buenos Aires. Throughout the short story, Joyce describes several images and actions that lead up to Evelines eventual inability to open with Frank. However, there are such a variety of images and actions that it is difficult to emphasize the specific key images and actions that lead readers to their ultimate understanding of the story. Due to the great follow of images and actions in Eveline, individual readers must designate their own important aspects of the story in order to assert meaning. Each person... ...overcoming the paralysis of fear and obligation to opt a chance for a more satisfying way of life. Works Cited Bleich, David. Readings and Feelings An Introduction to Subjective Criticism. Urbana National Council of Teachers of English, 1975. Holland, Norman N. The Question Who Reads What How? 5 Readers Reading. 1975. Joyce, James. Dubliners. New York capital letter Square Press, 1998. Schwarz, David R. Reader-Response Criticism and The Dead What Is Reader-Response Criticism? James Joyce The Dead Complete, Authoritative Text with Biographical and Historical Contexts, particular History, and Essays from Five Contemporary Critical Perspectives. Ed. David R. Schwarz. Boston Bedford Books of St. Martins Press, 1994. Werner, Craig Hansen. Dubliners A Pluralistic World. Boston Twayne Publishers, 1988.

Computers in Elementary Education :: School Technology Papers

Computers in Elementary Education When trying to describe the meaning of education, one might think of the relationship between a instructor and a student. The essence of this relationship is stregthned by the teachers ability to adapt to the students needs. With many advancements of society and technology, todays teachers be better equipped with tools so powerful that the standards of yesterday are being challenged more frequently. Among these great tools exists the computer and the Internet. Unfortunately, history reveals that great tools often have their consequences. For example, how great must it have been to be among the first few to single-valued function a knife thousands of years ago. We all know, just as those first few might have found out, that with all the positive and useful shipway we can use knives, there are just as many evil ways we can use them. With the help of the media as well as first hand use, millions of people already know of the risks having to deal wit h computers and the Internet. A nonher issue that plays a factor is the tradition as a whole. It might be possible that a few of the teachers around the world fear being replaced by a machine. Can the computer really substitute the help and guidance of a teacher? This idea itself raises an some other issue. Deciding how many computers per school, how many computers per class, how many lessons involving computers, whether Internet access should be granted, and planning security issues with expensive equipment is not going to be an easy task. I believe everyone is very excited right now about having computers in their class get ons. Its also happening at the unproblematic school where I am currently working as a T.A. There will be at least one computer in each classroom. The fourth and fifth grade classes have more than one because they have projects that they can type during class or they have any other activity that will enhance their computer abilities. I work in a kindergarten c lass and when the children were told they were going to have a computer in their room they all said, yeeaaahhh. I would be excited too because theyre only thought about the computer games that are going to be available for them. Theyre not thinking that their whole instruction is going to be in front of the computer. The decision making responsibilities are probably going to be left to the government.

Reader-Response Criticism of James Joyce’s Eveline from Dubliners Essay

A Subjective Reader-Response Criticism of James Joyces EvelineThe subjectivity evident in literary interpretation is hard to deny. Though one person may feel that James Joyces writing proves Joyces stand up of the feminist movement, another may believe that Joyce views women as inferior. What could account for such a difference in opinions? Schwarz explains that subjective reader-response critics would respond to a question such as this by answering that each reader uses the literary work to symbolize his or her own life and, therefore, each response is unique to the individualist reader. He asserts that the reader will always find an identity theme in the particular text he or she is reading. Consequently, the text must be looked at in terms of the response it invokes in the reader, and what this response says about the readers own psychological needs (129). Several of James Joyces works are ideal for subjective reader-response analysis and, in particular, the story Eveline from Dubliners. The story Eveline concerns a love affair between Eveline and a sailor, Frank, and Evelines unbelief about whether or not to run away with Frank to Buenos Aires. Throughout the short story, Joyce describes several images and actions that lead up to Evelines eventual inability to fix with Frank. However, there are such a variety of images and actions that it is difficult to emphasize the specific key images and actions that lead readers to their ultimate understanding of the story. Due to the great tour of images and actions in Eveline, individual readers must designate their own important aspects of the story in order to assert meaning. Each person... ...overcoming the paralysis of fear and obligation to take a chance for a more satisfying way of life. Works Cited Bleich, David. Readings and Feelings An Introduction to Subjective Criticism. Urbana National Council of Teachers of English, 1975. Holland, Norman N. The Question Who Reads What How? 5 Readers Reading. 1 975. Joyce, James. Dubliners. New York working capital Square Press, 1998. Schwarz, David R. Reader-Response Criticism and The Dead What Is Reader-Response Criticism? James Joyce The Dead Complete, Authoritative Text with Biographical and Historical Contexts, decisive History, and Essays from Five Contemporary Critical Perspectives. Ed. David R. Schwarz. Boston Bedford Books of St. Martins Press, 1994. Werner, Craig Hansen. Dubliners A Pluralistic World. Boston Twayne Publishers, 1988.

Computers in Elementary Education :: School Technology Papers

Computers in Elementary Education When trying to describe the meaning of education, one competency think of the relationship between a teacher and a student. The essence of this relationship is stregthned by the teachers ability to adapt to the students needs. With many advancements of society and technology, todays teachers ar better equipped with tools so powerful that the standards of yesterday are being challenged more frequently. Among these grand tools exists the estimator and the meshwork. Unfortunately, history reveals that great tools often have their consequences. For example, how great must it have been to be among the first few to use a knife thousands of years ago. We all k immediately, just as those first few might have found out, that with all the positive and useful ship after partal we can use knives, there are just as many evil ways we can use them. With the help of the media as well as first hand use, millions of people already know of the risks having to d eal with computers and the Internet. Another issue that plays a factor is the tradition as a whole. It might be possible that a few of the teachers around the world fear being replaced by a machine. Can the computer really substitute the help and guidance of a teacher? This idea itself raises another issue. Deciding how many computers per school, how many computers per set, how many lessons involving computers, whether Internet access should be granted, and planning security issues with expensive equipment is not going to be an easy task. I believe everyone is very excited right now about having computers in their classrooms. Its also happening at the elementary school where I am currently working as a T.A. There will be at least one computer in each classroom. The fourth and fifth grade classes have more than one because they have projects that they can type during class or they have any other activity that will enhance their computer abilities. I work in a kindergarten class and when the children were told they were going to have a computer in their room they all said, yeeaaahhh. I would be excited too because theyre only thinking about the computer games that are going to be available for them. Theyre not thinking that their whole instruction is going to be in front of the computer. The decision making responsibilities are probably going to be left to the government.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Southwest Internal Analysis

south-west Airlines Internal Analysis Introduction This internal business analysis is on Southwest Airlines, which was founded in 1967 by Rollin King and herb Kelleher. The primary(prenominal) focus for Southwest Airlines was to provide grim cost flights for their guests, and also have exceptional customer satisfaction. Southwest is a leading air passage company that continues to do well in an industry that has been historically challenging. For instance, in the span of two years (2005-2007) five major airlines have filed for bankruptcy.The challenges are great in the airline industry, because competitors are trying to ensue the low-cost offering of Southwest. Many companies have tried to do what Southwest has d wholeness, and galore(postnominal) have failed to stay in business. Surprisingly, some of those companies were started by ex-employees of Southwest. Southwest currently has a profitability record for the past thirty six years, which is spectacular in such a challengi ng industry. Herb Kelleher has been replaced by Gary C. Kelly, as the president when he resigned in May of 2008.Southwest is in the process of expanding the locations they serve so that they can increase market share, and also pose ways to cut costs without losing their quality. In order for southwest to continue their consecutive financial supremacy there is a necessity for excellence in the execution process of their strategy. Business Level Strategy The business level strategy (BLS) that Southwest focuses on is Cost Leadership. They are the leading airline in the United States for providing low-cost fares to their broad customer base.Southwest has found innovative ways to reduce cost within their cost structure enabling them to offer dismount fares than competitors and still main(prenominal)tain a profit. One way that has helped Southwest save time and money is their standardization of their airline fleet. This tactic is known as the one-model-fleet by the airline. Having a s ingle airplane model in a fleet has allowed Southwest to lower inventory, record abide bying and maintenance costs, and it minimizes the number of technical manuals, tools and innocent parts. Another methodology that has layed an important role in their thirty six years of profitability is their fuel hedging practices theyve practiced since the late nineties. This tactic has salvage the company millions of dollars, and in 2007 alone has saved the company 727 million dollars. Another cost saving measure that Southwest has implemented is the use of blended winglets on all of their 737-700s models. This change is supposed to improve performance by extending the airplanes range, saving fuel, and lowering engine maintenance costs and reducing takeoff noise. more recently, Southwest began to use EcoPower engine wash go.This is going to allow Southwest to save an estimated $20 million dollars in fuel costs. All of these tactics by Southwest are designed to save on expenses that they incur doing business. Many airlines cut cost by laying off employees, unless Southwest has accomplished a no layoff policy that is currently still in effect. This shows how committed the company is to their employees, and how they are an integral part of their business. Resources Southwest has plenty of resources that have contributed to their success as an airline company. Their in substantial resources have created their competitive advantage in relation to their competitors.The reason for that is the simple fact that their tangible resources are not rough to replicate. Its the technique that Southwest uses to connect their resources that has en abled them to be successful in the airline industry. Their tangible and intangible resources are as follows Tangible The main tangible resources that Southwest has are its training center, employees, headquarter facility, acquisitions, partnerships, take off and landing spots, frequent flyer reward program, self-service check-in kiosks, and their fleet aircrafts.In 1986, Southwest opened a multi-million dollar training center for their flight crews. As all businesses, employees are necessary if youre conducting business on a large scale. The connection among Southwest and its customers are their employees, which makes the employees role that much more important. Although, the employees are tangible, the culture of the employees is intangible aspect that has been difficult for competitors to imitate. The training center for their employees was an investment Southwest make early on knowing its importance to the long term success for the company.The headquarters for Southwest is another tangible resource, which is located in Dallas. The headquarter similar to many other companies allow top oversight to effectively communicate the organizational goals of the company. Acquisitions and partnerships that Southwest has completed throughout their duration allow the company to expand their services to more than 64 cities in the United States, and obtain more take-off and landing spots. The frequent flyer program is another tangible resource that Southwest possesses, but interestingly has not had a major impact on Southwests bottom line.With the help of IBM, Southwest was able to offer about 250 self-service check-in kiosks. The reason for having the kiosks for their customers was to reduce the amount of time the customers spend in line and to improve the airport experience. In the in truth beginning, Southwest only had 3 Boeings in their lineup but now they have more than 243 aircrafts in their lineup. Intangible The main intangible resources that Southwest has are its brand, bizarre culture, and reputation. Southwest has a brand that is known widely when referencing the airplane industry.The brand that they represent is one that is reliable, convenient, employee centered, customer oriented, and at the same time providing a low cost alternating(a) to their customers. This has helped dramatically i n their formation of their culture, because even in the beginning their main focus has been on its employees. Southwest has a culture that is unmatched in the industry, and one of the main reasons they have been wildly successful in a challenging environment. Early on Southwest made the decision to sell one of their airplanes kinda than laying off their employees to show their hardcorety to its employees.All of these factors have enabled the company to maintain a reputation that is respected among the industry. The reputation that they have has enabled them to reap the benefits of being accepted as a leader in the industry. For example, Southwest has earned several Triple Crown awards, which is an award for having the best on-time record, best baggage handling, and fewest customer complaints. Outcomes from Combinations of the Criteria for Sustainable war-ridden Advantage Is the Resource of Capability Valuable? Is the Resource or Capability Rare? Is the Resource or Capability C ostly to imitate? Is the Resource or Capability Nonsubstitutable? Competitive Consequences Performance Implications No No No No Competitive disadvantage Below-average returns Yes No No Yes/No Competitive parity Average returns Yes Yes No Yes/No Temporary competitive advantage Average returns to above-average returns Yes Yes Yes Yes/No Sustainable competitive advantage Above-average returns Result from the chart Capabilities The capabilities of Southwest Airlines are the origin of the firms ability to create a competitive advantage over other airlines in industry.Southwest focuses on three main functional areas within the organization, which are focusing, benignant resources, and marketing. Management The management capabilities of Southwest Airlines are the main reason why the company has been so profitable, utilizing an effective low cost organizational structure throughout the entirety of the company. Using only one type of plane fleet, the Boeing 737 series, which allows minim izing inventory and resources needed for training, maintenance, parts, and is also a very reliable plane.This helps in the quick turnaround times at the gates, which keeps more planes in the air at any given point in time. In the 1990s Southwest employed an aggressive fuel hedging tactic saving the company millions of dollars in hard times, while still being able to provide low ticket prices to consumers. Another important area management focuses on is the management of human resources that emphasis both employees and customer alike. Human Resources focussing on customer service, Southwest Airlines opened a multi-million dollar training facility for its flight crews in 1986.The heart of this training facility is to promote human capitol and share knowledge throughout company. By focusing first on their own employees, southwest can ensure that the employees will then focus on the customer. Through motivation and empowerment in the training of its employees, Southwest can provide cus tomers a comfortable experience while retaining employees and making it hard for competitors imitate. This is proved with its Triple Crown Award for best on-time record, best baggage handling, and least customer complaints. MarketingOne way to promote value and differentiate itself from competitors is Southwests zany advertisements. Exercising the LUV ticker symbol, Southwest promotes its customer driven services and prices. While in the late 1980s Southwest started a rewards program that has retained loyal customers, but has not been proven successful for leisure travelers. With the low cost abilities, timeliness flights, rewards, and focus on the customer, Southwest Airlines has carried out an exceptional marketing strategy. impression Competencies Employee LoyaltyWithin the first two years of operation Southwest suffered huge losses and had to make some major financial decisions. These decisions lead to the selling off an aircraft and keep all of the employees created the no l ay off policy. Then in 1973 Southwest was one of the first companies to incorporate profit sharing where employees owned at least 8% of the company stock. This leads to higher employee satisfaction, retention rate, and increases the want for the company to do well, this way the employees focus more on creating value for the customer.Management Skills Southwest Airlines management has tailored numerous sets of activities around a low cost structure creating value for the customer. With short domestic, point-to-point flights, no additional in flight features and no dirty dog reservations allows for a short turnaround time, which makes for less crowded airports and maximizes flight time. Along with fuel hedging and low maintenance costs, the design of these best-fit activities show that the excellent management skills are a core competency that creates a competitive advantage over other airlines.Conclusion Through the intertwining of its resources, Southwest Airlines has created a uni que set of capabilities and competencies that has unendingly allowed successful implementation of its business level strategy. With a focus on low-cost leadership and customer service, Southwest Airlines creates value with reliable on-time departures and a unique company culture. This provides a sustainable competitive advantage that is hard for competitors to imitate and provides a string foundation for Southwest Airlines future success.

First impressions of Iago and Othello Essay

In the play Othello, our first mould suggests that Iago and Othello are portrayed as having somewhat opposite qualities.Iago is first shown to be false and pretentious. Even though he says I will wear my heart upon my sleeve, giving the impression that he shows all his emotions willingly, he is then shown to be quite secretive and deceitful, plotting against Othello, Casio and Rodriguo, emphasising his ambitious nature. Further more we get the impression that he is spiteful and racist, building up his hatred and jealousy towards Othello, I hate the Moor.We also get the impression that Iago is manipulative. Firstly, he promises Rodriguo Desdemona in return for his aid, luring him into his grasp using one of Rodriguos desires, It cannot be long that Desdemona should continue her love to the Moor put money in thy purse. This effectively turns Rodriguo into a tool for Iagos deeds. Following that, he uses his trust to manipulate Othello into becoming suspicious of Desdemona, and undermi ning his faith in his wife.Another one of Iagos main features that we are presented with is that he is quite devious and cunning. He says himself I am not what I am, and in his soliloquies he contemplates his cunning plans, to plume up my will in double knavery. How? How? Lets see. Despite this, Othello still refers to him as Honest Iago.Othello, on the other hand, is shown to be a much more simple man, who is eloquent and much more admired. We get the impression that he looks for a sensible, balanced explanation for things. However his simple nature acts as a catalyst to produce many of his weaknesses.His privation of confidence in social situations causes him to become over-trusting and nave, leading to his poor judgment. He does not suspect Iago at all, and overlooks the possibility that Iago may not be acting in Othellos interest, referring to him as A man of honesty and trust.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Banjo Patterson Essay

Andrew Barton Banjo Paterson was an Australian bush poet, Journalist and Author. He focused most of his meters on Australian life, in the particular area of rural and outback areas, mainly places like Binalong and New South Wales where he grew up as a child. He was mostly famous from poems including Waltzing Matilda, The Man from Snowy River and Clancy of the Overflow. Banjo was born on the 17th February 1864 in Narrambla, near Orange, New South Whales. Banjos train of education as a child was relatively privileged. At a young age he attended a bush school which was ran by the governess.Then from 1874, he attended Sydney Grammar School, a prestigious school in the heart of Sydney. After finishing school, Paterson became an article clerk at a Sydney legal philosophy firm, and was admitted as a solicitor in 1886. Paterson practiced as a solicitor until the early years of the twentieth century, by which time he had in like manner developed a promising literary career. His earliest p ublished work dates from 1885, when he submitted a poem criticising the British war in the Sudan (in which Australian phalanx were involved) to the Bulletin, a new literary journal with an Australian nationalist focus.Over the next decade the increasingly popular and influential Bulletin provided an important forum for the publication of Patersons verse, which appeared under the pseudonym The Banjo, adopted from the name of one of his favourite horses. By 1895 Banjo had written many poems and such as Clancy of the Overflow, The Geebung Polo orderliness, The Man from Ironbark, How the Favourite Beat Us and Saltbush Bill were so popular with readers that Angus & Robertson, published the collection, The Man From Snowy River, and Other Verses, in October.From which nearly tout ensemble the context from these poems came from Banjos love for the out back in his home town Narrambla. The title-poem had swept the colonies when it was first published in April 1890. The book had a odd rec eption the first edition sold out in the week of publication and 7000 copies in a few months its particular achievement was to establish the bushman in the national consciousness as a romantic and archetypal figure.The book was as much praised in England as in Australia The Times compared Paterson with Rudyard Kipling who himself wrote to congratulate the ublishers. Patersons identity as The Banjo was at last revealed and he became a national celebrity overnight. While on holiday in Queensland late in 1895, Paterson stayed with friends at Dagworth station, near Winton. It was here were he wrote one of his most famous pieces of work in the history of his entire life, Waltzing Matilda This piece is now Australias best cognise folk song. And many say that this was the peak and the start of the decline in banjos career in poetry.He did not stop writing later on this, in fact after this holiday he got offered an amazing career opportunity when he became a journalist for the Sydney Morn ing Herald as a War correspondent. The quality of his reporting attracted the notice of the English press and he was appointed as a correspondent also for the international news agency, Reuters, an esteem which he especially cherished in his later years. Then Back in Sydney in 1902, Paterson published another collection, Rio Grandes Last Race, and Other Verses, and in November decided to abandon his legal practice.Next year he was appointed editor of the Sydney Evening News. Andrew Barton Banjo Paterson died on the 5th of February 1941. On the night of Patersons death, Vance Palmer broadcasted a tribute He laid hold both of our affections and imaginations he made himself a vital part of the country we all know and love, and it would not just have been a poorer country but one far less united in bonds of intimate feeling, if he had never lived and written.

Analysis of the Warehouse Automation Failure at Sainsbury’s

AbstractAll organizational departments play a collective role in ensuring that the intend goals and targets are achieved. It is snappy that they cogitation together because the whole is greater than the sum of the parts. Because of the connection that exists amongst different departments, adversity in unitary department may have a bad effect to the entire organization. In this regard, this report addresses the case of storage warehouse failure at Sainsburys. It provides an in-depth discussion of the failure and utilizes Porters value chain depth psychology model to explore how failures in primary and financial support activities from the model might have contributed to this.IntroductionOne of the responsibilities of managers is ensuring that all components or departments within the organization work in effect. This is because success in organization is dependent on the contributions made by different departments. There have been several cases where failure in a genius departm ent has adversely moved(p) all operations of the caller-out. This paper seeks to address this focussing issue by focusing on the failures that occurred in the warehouse mechanization strategy at Sainsburys in 2004 (Double Loop, 2013). It is based on the view that there are many operational failures or disasters occur due to managers need of understanding about the whole organization. This leads to problems in the synchronising of different organizational consorts.An Overview of SainsburysSainsburys is one of the largest supermarket chains in the United Kingdom, with a up-to-date market share of 17.7%. Apart from running the supermarket business, the brand too deals in the banking and property industries. Since it was founded in 1869, the corporation has undergone a phenomenal growth. Currently, it runs more than than 1,106 convenience stores and supermarkets, and has more than 150,000 employees. The company operates both as a wholesaler and as a retailer (Sainsburys, 201 4). It has stores that curb of supermarkets, convenience stores, and pharmacies. In the supermarkets category, the company runs Sainsburys cafe and Sainsburys fuel. It also has an online business referred to as Sainsburys online, and comprises of Sainsburys Energy, Entertainment, Compare and Save, and Sainsburys gift cards. There are also banking and mobile businesses that are run by the company. Even with this level of success that the company presently enjoys, it has also undergone a number of challenges, some of which have led to heavy losses. Key among these was the warehouse witness failure in 2004 (OBrien, 2004).Warehouse automation failure at SainsburysThe warehouse automation hold commenced in 2000 and had originally been meant to improve the efficiency of the companys supply chain. The project was under the business conversion programme, whose name planks were Electronic Point Sale (EPOS), supply chain management, and outsourcing of its IT projects to Accenture. The w arehouse automation project was intended to overhaul and improve supply chain management of the company. The company had originally intended to make installations of automated fulfilment dodgings in one of its distribution centres, Waltham Point in Essex. This is the companys biggest depot, and distributes stock around London and southeast England. By implementation of a barcode based fulfilment schema though this project, it was projected that it could make the companys warehousing operations more streamlined and efficient (Double Loop, 2013).Three years into the launch of the business transformation programme, the CEO who had launched the project reported that it was on the right track, and had saved the whole organization a total amount of ?700 million. However, it was afterward realized that automation system had developed technical issues, mainly errors in reading barcodes. Not only did this failure affect the companys operations, it also caused contractual rows between Sain sburys and Accenture, financial losses and undue attention from media. With reference to OBrien (2004), implementation of this project led to a pre-tax loss of ?39 million in the start-off half of 2004, the worst that the company had ever recorded in its 139 years of operation. This also made the company lose ground to its competitors in the market, which included Asda and Tesco (Double Loop, 2013).Causes of the failureThis failure can be attributed to several management issues in the company. One of these was the situation on which IT projects, which were to facilitate the automation project, were outsourced to another company (Abdullah & Verner, 2012). Even though the company being outsourced to might have had a good reputation in implementing such projects, the lack of involvement by parent company managers in the monitor and evaluation of the project can affect the attainment of the intended objective (Alexander & Walker, 2013). The minimal involvement by Sainsburys managemen t in this project explains wherefore it took three years and a change in leadership to realize that the project was not likely to attain its set objectives (Alexander & Walker, 2013).Another possible cause, which has also been identified by Double Loop (2013) is that there was insufficient engagement between the companys CEO and its IT suppliers in projecting the possible key business and IT risks. For this reason, no delivery strategy that could tackle these challenges was promptly designed (Chermack, 2011). This can also be considered as the lack of sufficient preparations by the thence CEO (Sir Peter Davis) before the initiation of the project. Insufficient preparation exposes projects to the risk of possible failure and over-expenditure (Kardes et al., 2013).There was also a communication problem, which can be mainly blamed on Sir Peter Davis. Whereas it must have been known to him that the project could probably fail to serve its intended objective, his presentation about the project to the public was that its progress was as planned and that by 2003, it had saved the company ?700 million. Had the issues been frankly and promptly pointed out, necessary measures could have been undertaken to avert the heavy loss that was later incurred (Aula & Siira, 2010). Given that this failure was associated with the warehouse automation exercise at Sainsburys warehouse automation project, it is also worth noting that the failure might have been part caused by automation challenges. The position that automated system failed to operate as it was intended to, indicates that all the inputs in terms of time, money and resources were lost (Kardes et al., 2013).Porters Value chain Analysis of the FailurePorters value chain model can be used to identify the primary and supporting activities which contributed to the failure at Sainsburys According to Porter (1985), generic value added activities can be divided into two. These are primary activities and support activities. P rimary activities comprise of inbound and outbound logistics, sales and marketing, services and operations. Supporting activities, on the other hand, comprise of firm infrastructure, senior management roles, internal culture, procurement, outsourcing and scientific nurtures. The model is delineate in the diagram below, in which the functions that contributed to the failure at Sainsburys have been marked.Fig. 1 Sainsburys value chain components that contributed to the failure in warehouse automationThe functions marked in the value chain model above have been identified as the contributors towards the identified failure. They are explained in more detail belowOutbound logistics in the value chain, outbound logistics are referred to as activities that mainly relate to transference of goods to customers through warehousing. The automation of the warehouse at Sainsburys was being done so as to facilitate this primary activity in the organization. The failure of the warehouse automat ion to effectively take place thus affected the activities in outbound logistics (Zott et al., 2011).Senior management Roles There was a failure by the senior management, led by the companys CEO to effectively make an exhaustive plan of the warehouse automation project, which could have identified the potential risks and contributed to the formulation of possible strategies to overcome these challenges (Kardes et al., 2013). Another failure by the management was in terms of their involvement in the implementation of the project, only to identify issues three years after implementation of the project (Double Loop, 2013).Internal Communications This function refers to how effectively and accurately information is passed within the organizational precinct (Wright, 2012). The failure was due to the miscommunication by the CEO, where he purported that the project was on the right track and had in fact saved the company a reasonable amount of money. This shows that he was either being giv en the wrong information by the contractor company or he was presenting wrong information about the project.Technology developments It has to be acknowledged that the companys agenda was to improve its service delivery to its customers through technological innovation. However, given that the entire automation project failed to materialize, it can be argued that there was a technological development failure. According to Porters (1985) model, technological development comprises of all activities that relate to the processing and management of information. It also involves the activities undertaken in ensuring that the organization keeps up with the latest technological changes.Outsourcing The IT automation project was undertaken by Accenture, an outsourced IT company, which failed to deliver the intended automation results, and ultimately led to the cancellation of the contract (Double Loop, 2013).ConclusionThis paper has presented a case of warehouse automation failure at Sainsbury s in 2004. With the answer of the Porters value chain model, several primary and supporting activities that might have contributed to the failure have been identified. The identified primary activities are inbound logistics and outbound logistics. Supporting activities are outsourcing, technology developments, internal communications and senior management roles. The fact that all these activities affected and were also affected by the warehouse automation failure at Sainsburys proves that many operational failures or disasters that occur because there is lack of understanding of the whole organization, resulting in problems in the synchronization of different organizational functions.ReferencesAlexander, A. & Walker, H., 2013. Sustainable supply chain management towards a systems theory perspective. Dublin EUROMA conference.Double Loop, 2013. Sainsburys Warehouse Automation Project. Online Available athttp//www.doubleloopconsulting.com/sainsbury-warehouse-automation Accessed 6 Mar ch 2014.Kardes, I., Ozturk, A., Cavusgil, S.T. & Cavusgil, E., 2013. Managing global megaprojects Complexity and risk management. International Business Review, 22(6), pp.905-17.OBrien, L., 2004. Digital disaster. Online Available athttp//www.supplymanagement.com/analysis/features/2004/digital-disaster/ Accessed 6 March 2014.Porter, M., 1985. free-enterprise(a) Advantage. New York Free Press.Sainsburys, 2014. About us. Online Available at http//www.j-sainsbury.co.uk/about-us/ Accessed 6 March 2014.Zott, C., Amit, R. & Massa, L., 2011. The business model recent developments and future research. Journal of Management , 37(4), pp.1019-42.Abdullah, L.M. & Verner, J.M., 2012. Analysis and industriousness of an outsourcing risk framework. Journal of Systems and Software, 85(8), pp.1930-52.Aula, P. & Siira, K., 2010. Organizational Communication and Conflict Management Systems A Social Complexity Approach. Nordicom Review, 31, pp.125-41.Chermack, T.J., 2011. Scenario Planning in Organi zations. California Berrett-Koehler.Wright, M., 2012. Gower Handbook of Internal Communication. Burlington Gower Publishing.

Saturday, May 25, 2019

To What Extent Does Market Liberalisation Influence Competition In Gas And Electricity Sector

ABSTRACT Market liberalization is a modern notion adopted by umteen government activitys around the world. It has gained fame ascribable to its top executive to enhance efficiency and quality due to contest. This paper presented an analysis of the liberalization of grease-gun and oil heavenss in the United Kingdom. The analysis was limited to the train and personal effects of downriver liberalization of these vault of heavens.The entree adopted by this paper included review of several sources that relate the various variegates that have taken place in the UK electricity and throttle domain since 1980s. From the analysis of the concept of relaxation and its application in the atom smasher and electricity areas in the UK, it is evident that it is directly linked to the opening of arguing. Liberalisation in these sectors involved unbundling of downstream infrastructure and activities, opening up the sectors for contest. The fact that UK produces most of its electric ity and fluid makes it to have full control of its downstream relaxation method. UK has effectively managed to introduce and maintain downstream rivalry enhancing the impact of liberalisation in the sectors. In addition, the separation of the activities of the sectors promotes free competition in the downward section of the two industries as the government is in a position to offer independent regulatory framework that promotes liberalisation in the sectors. INTRODUCTIONMarket liberalisation has been a major policy in most developed economies in regard to electricity and fluff sectors1. The push of introducing competition by means of privatisation in the gas and electricity sectors emerged in the 1980s with the United Kingdom and the United States pi matchlessering liberalisation in these sectors with a success2. The adoption of liberalisation in the gas and electricity sectors has military issueed to crusade from evidence owned vertically integrated monopolies to privatel y owned, liberalised grocery store participants that operate under government regulations argon well as environmentally conscious environment3. Consequently, the traditionalistic approach to doing business in the gas and electricity sectors has been changed as the industries move from large dependence on the capacity to reliance on short-term foodstuff impairment signals, flexible cipher policies and tentative environmental regulations4. therefore, the ultimate approach adopted in introducing downstream liberalisation in the oil and gas sectors was through the understructure of various reforms by the government that initiated a shift from government owned monopolies to a competitive formation5. As much as the eventual return of downstream liberalisation is increased efficiency and competitiveness that results to lower outlays for commodities in the market, government regulations play a central role in regulating trading operations of these sectors6. This paper will focus o n analysing downstream liberalisation in the gas and electricity sectors in UK and how it promotes competitionBACKGROUND INFORMATION ON electrical energy AND GAS SECTORS IN THE UKThe underlying principles for reforms in this sector was that privatisation of the sectors would provide better competition than direct state self-possession7. The analysis of the two sectors was conducted independently for development of deeper insights of the level liberalisation as well as future prospects in terms of downstream competition.The bobble SectorUK is the third largest consumer of gas in the world. Its use of gas is not limited to a source of energy as its use as a fuel in electricity generation is on the increase as the use of coal is being slobberped due to its heavy carbon footprint. nearly of the gas used in the UK is sourced from its offshore gas fields however, this is bound to change in the future as its deposits are diminishing8. The offshore drudgery process in UK is very compet itive with numerous fields exhibiting diffuse ownership.9 Onshore dividing line operations are dominated by Transco as much as there are 11 separate independent pipeline operators in the UK10. downstream competitiveness is also boosted by over 100 wholesale gas outlets who mainly deal with gas shipment.Compared to other countries in Europe, competition in UKs gas sector is very steep due to the boundless extraction potential in its offshore sources,11 enhancing downstream competition. Before liberalisation of the gas sector in UK, wholesale gas contracts were restricted take-or-pay commitments, long-term and linked to international oil prices. The emergence of liberalisation in the 1990s resulted to competition with an upsurge of players12. This automatically resulted to reduced contract periods, take-or-pay commitments were lessened, and the price of gas is no longer linked to the oil prices. Furthermore, the UK has implemented measures that promote relationships between gas tra nsports as a assist and gas supply as energy has enhanced the level of stratification of the gas sector as more wholesalers enter into the business13. Subsequently, the process of drudgery of gas and transportation of gas in the UK are separated and operated by different companies.The UK gas pipeline administration is connected to the mainland Europe which functions in two ways. Most of the connection is used for gas export purposes to other European countries while during winter the pipeline is used for importation to bridge the demand gap as production is slowed down during those times14. The large size of Europe market relative to UK results to price arbitrage between UK and Europe, which in most cases increases the wholesale prices of gas in UK. The effect of low level of downstream liberalisation in the European gas sector makes the shift in gas prices in UK insignificant due to poor levels of downstream competition in Europe15.The 1972 Gas exercise resulted to the merger o f the coal gas supply industry to a government owned monopoly. This monopoly was strengthened by the fact that the government owned all onshore gas infrastructures. The liberalisation program was introduced in 1980s by formulation of the Oil and Gas Act of 1982 that looked to introduce competition in the sectors16. This act passively promoted competition through the development of a better framework for awarding contracts17. The 1986 Gas Act initiated privatization of government owned BG Company as an effort of cultivating liberalisation and competition in the gas sector. However, real competition in the gas sector in UK emerged in 1990s. This was boosted by the Gas Act of 1995 that promoted unbiased competition in the gas market where production process and transportation process were separated and price control for storage and transportation was split18. This was an important aspect that promoted an increase in the number of players in the field promoting competition.The Electri city SectorThe process of liberalisation of the electricity sector in UK was initiated in 199019. This was initiated by splitting of the government owned Electricity Company into four companies20. Three companies were involved in generation while one was involved in transmission of electricity in UK. The two non-nuclear companies were privatised by 1991while the nuclear company remained a public company. The supply ashes was transferred to 12 regional private companies21. The main aspect of this shift of ownership from government to private in the electricity sector was the horizontal downstream severance, which resulted to competition. To enhance downstream competition, the pool corpse was introduced with the aim of centralizing trade in the electricity as well as develops a balance between demand and supply22. The pool system is a single price system that is defined by the bids offered by the generators. The government also introduced adjust reintegration of the electricity pr oduction and supply sectors as an approach to promoting efficiency. In 2001, the pool system was abandoned in favour of the wholesale market framework based on New Electricity Trading Agreements (NETA) that promoted integration of gas and electricity sectors as gas became a major fuel for electricity generation in the UK23.The excogitation of NETA as the main regulatory system in the electricity sector enabled the development of effective linkages between the regulated monopoly of balancing and the competitive market. This system promoted segregated downstream ownership, which has reduced the number of regulations compulsory to guarantee non-biased access to the networks. Downstream competition is no longer managed by price regulations. Quality has become the main threshold of downstream regulations resulting to intensification of quality controlled competition24. There are numerous reasons that affect the process of liberalisation in this segmentFirstly, the changes in the UK el ectricity sector were based on reforms that aim to develop competition through privatization25. The argument was that a pro-competitive industry is better that one that is devised based in regulations in managing maker provides. The privatization of electricity generation implyd numerous regulations, which ingest a long period of time to completely eliminate all the anti-competitive forces in the sector. Secondly, the use of regulations is slowly defining activities that promote completion in a sector that had a high level of monopoly. The competition problem in this sector emerge due to various activities require application of natural monopoly. These challenges are handled by sustained changes in the regulatory framework to promote complete downstream liberalisation in the electricity sector26.The strong vertical relationship in the electricity sector also results to complications where downstream competition problems affect upstream competition27. For instance, capacity proble ms at one production unit may require other production system to alter their production to compensate the deficit. Likewise, vertical competition is easy to distort due to availability of various avenues that may promote twirl of competition. This is common where the returns of the market are regulated below the monopoly price. As a result, competitive activities by former monopolies results to various challenges with regard to regulations28.The main successes realised in the reforms of the electricity sector in the UK is the implementation of the Ofgem proposal29. This proposal has resulted to extension of NETA by introducing tradable electricity, financial firm, and development of market based electricity production system. Generally, the electricity reforms pickings place currently aims to completely eradicate regulation systems such that the downstream liberalisation in the electricity sector is fully realised to promote all-out competition, where the operations of the sectors are fully controlled by the market forces30.DESCRIPTION OF ELECTRICITY AND GAS SECTORS IN THE UKFrom the above preview of what is happening in the electricity and gas sectors in the UK, it is evident that the sectors are moving towards the realization of complete liberalisation as regulations loosen. The development of regulations was initiated with a focus on price regulation tho as time went by, they are mainly focussed on quality control. These changes have raised some issues that require detailed analysis to develop a comprehensive presentation of how downstream liberalisation in these sectors promotes competition.Downstream Gas sectorThis is majorly driven by the 1995 act provisions that define the activities of downstream gas sector and how competition is achieved. To be able to analyse the process of downstream competitiveness, it is necessary analyse the elements of the code as it determines how downstream competition in the gas sector is achieved. The root aspect of the c ode is that the shippers book supply to the national transmission system for a 12-month period where the price of supply are resolute by status of injection point31. Gas is bought and sold by Transco based on flexibility mechanism to insure no shortfalls are experienced as a result of shippers imbalances32. Transco is also responsible of ensuring the available inventory sustains peak seasons such as during winter33.Analysis of the offshore gas mining fields reveals intense liberalisation strategies that promoted competition. Specifically, the northward Sea gas fields in UK are managed by 25 different operators that share 129 gas exploration licences34. The introduction of various players in the production process automatically eliminated monopoly, which has been a major problem in downstream gas liberalisation. However, government still regulates the production process of gas resulting to partial liberalisation in the production system35.Downstream oligopoly in the gas sectorThe fact that gas supply is limited to a few locations that are mostly offshore and some merchandise from a few countries that are globally known for their huge amounts of gas reserves, there are very few players in the production and supply of gas in the UK. The ability of UK to produce its gas locally makes its supply chain manageable and directed to full liberalisation covering both upstream and downstream36. Oligopoly as a market structure in the gas sectors has been in existence in the UK since 1970s with its upstream market. The perception of oligopoly in the UK gas sector is founded on the fact that a market that is exposed to perfect competition has players that have fewer concerns about the operations of their counterparts. An action by one players results to a response by the other. For instance, if one firm is unable to meet its production requirements, some other company increases its supplies to break the gap left by the other firm is levelled. similar case is evident in product pricing where all the companies develop more or less similar pricing partly regulated by regional demand within the UK37.Therefore, UK gas supply system is operated based on oligopoly of its 25 main supplies from the offshore gas fields where the final price of the gas is determined by the effects of informal collision between the suppliers. The collision price of gas in UK is also affected by the global oil price that is normally used as a reference point in most cases. The fact that currently there is no excessive dominance in the downstream segment as most government operations have been privatized the prices charged by the wholesale suppliers is similar.Implications of liberalisation in UKs Gas SectorBefore the concept of liberalisation was introduced in the gas sector in the UK, there was a high level of monopoly in the gas production system with the government owning almost all offshore gas fields in the UK38. Liberalisation has resulted to entry of new players wi th government monopoly being eliminated and competition taking its roots. However, downstream gas sector in the UK is not fully liberalised as in the case of upstream due to high levels of government regulations in an effort of ensuring supplies meet the demands and prices are regulated within acceptable standards. Furthermore, the high costs of investments needed in downstream segment of UKs gas sector limit entry of new players resulting oligopoly as the main approach to downstream competition in the gas sector. Therefore, downstream liberalisation in the gas sector has opened it up to competition through processes that resulted to separation of the production chain from supply chain, introduction of competition through privatization of government monopolies, and development of regulatory frameworks that control areas that are still affected by natural monopoly39.Downstream Electricity SectorThe production of electricity in the UK has undergone numerous changes since early 1990s w hen coal and nuclear dominated the generation system. New plants that operate utilise gas and nuclear have been installed while several coal and oil based plants have been shut down as the country embraces the spirit of gullible energy. The concept of liberalisation is also evident in the system as most of the new generation systems developed from the 1990s are privately owned40. The introduction of private companies in the power generation automatically resulted to the decline of dominance in the sector by national power and power gen which are state owned companies. This is evident as government dominance in power generation is lowest in the UK as compared to the rest of Europe. The success of UK electricity sector is founded in its effective regulatory framework that has protected it from the faults that were evident in California and Australia when downstream liberalisation was introduced41. The regulatory system adopted in downstream electricity sector in the UK is market bas ed. Moreover, the UK downstream electricity sector is devised based on strong market incentives that promote entry of new players as a way of fostering competition42. NETA has successfully managed to keep the wholesale electricity prices low making it possible for new players to enter into the production system and debate favourably. The fact that the transmission system is still monopolised, downstream liberalisation is limited to production as much as the government has set various measures to ensure it does not interfere with downstream and upstream liberalisation43.The government has initiated various regulatory changes that promote competition between market players. The main aspect that promotes completion is the market share that is defined by a companys effectiveness and competitiveness. The most important aspect of liberalisation in the electricity production system is to introduce competition as the main aspect of promoting innovativeness and efficiency among the players in the sector44. The success of UK system is founded in its approach that promoted competition amid independent producers and existing government firms.Competition as a result of liberalisation of the UKs electricity downstream sector was promoted by development of regulation of monopolies in the sector with the aim of eliminating the traditional vertical integrated system. Liberalisation broke down the structure into three sections, which were downstream, transmission, and upstream where competitive markets replace the vertically integrated firms with government monitor and regulation. The approach to liberalisation in the UKs electricity sector was based on transmission system operators (TSOs)45. This system is based on the concept that ownership and transmission planning are integrated components of the market and system operation46. The state ownership of the transmission system is central to the success of the system as it ensure unbiased treatment of the firms involved in the downstream production of electricity. More so, the use of TSOs has enhanced coordination between the electricity producers enhancing competitiveness as information deputize is encouraged47.The electricity market is complex due to inability of the producers to store the produced power in large quantities and the existence of varied demand conditions. The need of electricity production system to meet the demand needs and flexibility makes the process of downstream liberalisation to be regulated to ensure system stability48. The lack of constant using up pattern in electricity results to price volatility in the wholesale electricity market. These complexities tend to play down on competition as authentic supplies are used during peak seasons resulting to instances of oligopoly in the downstream electricity sector.Generally, there are some complexities in downstream electricity sector in UK however, the introduction of liberalisation that has been subjected to continuous improvement to ensure liberalisation is fully realised has created competition as evident in the introduction of the pull system that resulted to competition lowering prices49. NETA is another major body that not only enhanced competition in the electricity sector but also resulted to further drop of prices as players increased promoting price competitiveness50. The recent vertical reintegration in the UK electricity sector where large electricity producing companies are acquiring retail distribution businesses this is another factor that will further enhance competitiveness in the sector as players develop links that offer them direct access to the final consumer of their product51. terminalThe analysis of the concept of liberalisation and its application in the gas and electricity sectors in the UK reveals its direct link to the introduction of competition due to the introduction of many players in the downstream segment and the eventual opening up of the segments to market forces that are in effective to monopolistic market structure52.The paper examined a historical reputation of the regulatory changes in the process of liberalizing the UK gas and electricity sectors providing links between liberal policies and regulations and opening up of the sectors to competition. The most evident aspect of liberalisation that promoted competition was the privatization of government monopolies in the production of electricity and gas in the country. Specifically, it was evident that the process of liberalisation of gas and electricity sectors is affected by the types of commodities that are handled by the players in the two industries. Furthermore, the fact that UK produces most of its gas and electricity locally makes it an interesting participant in downstream liberalisation. However, the uniqueness of the properties of electricity and gas require infrastructural systems that are managed by the government to ensure a level playing field for the downstream segments in the gas and electricity industries in the UK.ReferencesPrimary sources internationalist Decisions OECD. 2005. The Benefits of Liberalising Product Markets and Reducing Barriers to International Trade and Investment the Case of the United States and the European Union. OECD sparings Department Working Paper 432, ParisNational statute lawGreat Britain. 2009. UK offshore oil and gas first report of session 2008-09, Vol. 1 Report, together with formal minutes. London, UK The Stationery OfficeGreat Britain. 2011. The UKs energy supply security or independenceeighth report of session 2010-12, Vol. 1 Report, together with formal minutes, oral and written evidence. London, UK The Stationery Office Secondary sourcesBooksArmstrong, M., Cowan, S. & Vickers, J. 1994. Regulatory Reform, Economic Analysis and British Experience. Cambridge, MA MIT PressGeradin, D. 2001. The relaxation of Electricity and Natural Gas in the European Union. South Holland Kluwer Law InternationalGao, A. M. 2010. Regulating G as Liberalization A Comparative Study on Unbundling and Open Access Regimes in the US, Europe, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan. South Holland Kluwer Law InternationalParker, D., 2012. The Official History of Privatisation, Vol. 2. London, UK RoutledgeSmith, M. P. 2012. States of Liberalization Redefining the Public Sector in Integrated Europe. New York, NY SUNY PressSurrey, J. 2013. The British Electricity Experiment Privatization the Record, the Issues, the Lessons. London, UK RoutledgeArticles Joskow, P. & Tirole, J. 2000. Transmission rights and market power in electric power networks. Rand Journal of Economics, 31(3), 450-487Newbery, D. 2005. Electricity Liberalisation in Britain. The Energy Journal, special issue on European Electricity Liberalisation.Wolak, F. & Patrick, R. 2001. The Impact of Market Rules and Market Structure on the Price Determination Process in the England and Wales Electricity Market. NBER Working Paper 8248

The Luxury of the Bellagio Las Vegas

The Bellagio in Las Vegas is a four star resort that captures the essence of Vegas. It combines elegance with old world charm to provide its guest with atomic number 53 of the most luxurious stays in this colorful city. The rooms ar divided into guest rooms, suites and luxury villas. The rooms range from 510-626 squ ar feet.They argon unexampled and well appointed. Each has modern amenities that one would expect at a 4-star establishment. (Bellagio) The suites argon characterized by their decorating style and range from 800-4075 square feet. (Bellagio) Their styles appeal to executives and fun-seekers alike.These are truly rooms to be indulged and dish out should follow accordingly. The villas are designed for guests that seek luxury and the best in life. The Bellagio website describes them as such. Each of our 6,500 square foot, devil bedroom, five bathroom Villas and 8,000 square foot, three bedroom/seven bathroom Villas feature an in-suite workout facility, a massage room, a private kitchen, a luxuriant bar stocked with guests favorite beverages, a duel fireplace, and a gorgeous private terrace and garden with a pool and a whirlpool. (Bellagio) Obviously these villas are designed for the most exclusive clientele.The hotel itself is cognize for its beautiful fountains that dance on cue to music several times a daytime. Additionally, they house botanical gardens, pools and courtyards, blind galleries and concierge service. A feature that should not be missed is the lobby ceiling adorned with a blown glass sculpture created by Dale Chihuly. Of course the hotel is known for its gambling scandalizes and Cirque O is now housed within its buildings. Fine dining opportunities are offered in various price levels. This hotel is the embodiment of luxury, convenience and fine living. train Program for Villa employeesThe Villas require an employee that is versed in excellent service techniques as well as discretion. As this section of the hotel caters to our most exclusive guest, the service crucial mirror their expectations. This is a challenge as these are at times the most demanding of all our guests. There are three groups of employeesfloor managers, guest service associates and cleaning personnel. The ongoing planning starts with the first day of employment within the division. It is seen as an advantage to work in the Villas because of the high profile of our clientele.Thus most of these employees are promoted from other divisions. They require two weeks of additional training before they are allowed to work with the customers. All require a background check. Training Objectives We employ a program that focuses on consistency, innovative techniques and dedication to upkeep of the reputation of the hotel. (Signature) The first phase is consistency. Each employee must be educated virtually the hotels visions and judges. This ordain inform all their decisions as they need to act in accordance to those expectations. Floor Manage rs Our first step is to empower the floor managers.The floor managers should start the day by reviewing their staffs appearance. Each staff member should be briefed on the guests staying in the Villas and their anticipated needs. The floor manager can do this electronically (as in a daily webpage) or as a face to face meeting. This is the point in the day where the vision of the Bellagio is demonstrated and actualized. It is up to the floor manager to do this accordingly. The floor managers are usually promoted guest service associates. Their two week training session focuses on management techniques and personnel skills. sooner I can hold my managers accountable for the performance of their staff, I have to make sure they know how to educate their employees. (Westminster) They are in addition shown what they are allowed to do. It is the hotels goal to solve altercations on that level before they are given to the general management. This is done in an interactive workshop surround ings and then reinforced with on-line activities and assessments. eLearning can effectively deliver the theory behind your service philosophy along with the procedure and policy. (Duprey) This allows employees to be able to show their advancements both in person and on-line.As well, the online resources provide a point where employees can check their progress and reference prior information. All of the training focuses on hands-on mulcting and working to resolve real world situations. (Westminster) In particular, floor managers are taken through a series of role-playing activities. The real world aspect of this part of the training is indispensable. Upper management can see exactly how they might solve a problem and assist them in making positive situations. (DeLollis) Once they are trained, they are given the job of training their guest service and cleaning personnel.They are encouraged to share what they learned. They will be taught how to appeal to and train good deal with ma ny different learning styles and skills. Guest Services and Cleaning Personnel The employees will be assessed in person and on-line. The cleaning personnel will be trained with hand-on modules and will be evaluated based on an on-site observation. They will work in tandem with an experienced cleaner for the first month of their service. Cleanliness is our lift priority, so this is a major area of need. Each six months, employees will attend another training session.The purpose of these follow up sessions are to criticism their performance, provide them with new information and acknowledge their successes. At this point in their employment, they are offered incentives for retention. Their service is rewarded. For every additional training session they attend or online training they pursue, they will also receive rewards and incentives that lead to promotion and salary increase. Employee Value Each employee, whether manager or cleaner, is valued. Part of the training is to demonstra te this value and to show them their importance. This is done through incentives and awards.(Atkinson) We believe the greater the share they have in the overall success of the hotel, the greater effort they will demonstrate. Along with that value, we also seek to challenge the employees. We disembodied spirit this increases their sense of worth. We challenge them through task achievement, weekly goals, excellence performance levels, and as mentioned additional training incentives. We give the employees office to succeed. Todays workplace can be highly stressful, and the pace is unlikely to slow down. A key challenge is helping people learn in a highly stressful environment.One way that companies can help is by providing learning opportunities that balance challenge and support. (Atkinson) The bottom line is that we want our employees to feel how important they are to the overall success of the team. We feel that the more training we provide, the more supported they feel. As emplo yees make who we are, the Bellagio always provides opportunities for and expects feedback. We seek to create an environment that encourages open discussion and unfettered communication. In that spirit we have weekly meetings where the employees can voice concerns.For more sensitive issues, there is an online journal employees can engross out and floor managers can answer. (Atkinson) We agree with Starwood resorts that although our buildings are beautiful, it is our people that create an unforgettable experience. Our guests value the design of our hotels, but what they really remember are the people. Their loyalty was often to a specific employee who had gone out of their way for them. (DeLollis) Advantages and Disadvantages The employee training program is one with strength but can always be improved. As well, its goal has to be retention otherwise it is extremely expensive and ineffective.The chart divides each section of the training process and assesses its effectiveness. It a lso discusses its disadvantages or areas that we can improve. Our hotel is about service people, thus our employee training is about service. Overall our goals are to ensure continuity, offer fresh and interesting training programs and demonstrate the value of our employees. It is absolutely essential that our managers are empowered to make decision. As well, they should be empowered to show their employees appreciation and recognize their growth and development. Working in this section of the hotel is seen as an accomplishment.In ordinance to maintain that mentality, we must focus our training program on what our employees need rather than what we want them to know. Working with the select clientele that the Bellagio attracts requires devotion and knowledge. This can whole be developed through a comprehensive training program that consistently communicates value, growth and the image of the hotel. Works Cited Alejandro, C. Employee Training, Incentives Boost Conservation Programs . Energy user News 4 October 1982. Atkinson, Tom. Helping Hotel Employees LearnWithout Reservation. Hotel Executive. 2003 Cummins Communications 2 May 2008.Bellagio Las Vegas. 2008. MGM Mirage. 2 May 2008 (www. bellagio. com). De Lollis, Barbara. Hotels Train Employees to Think Fast. USA Today. 2006 USA Today 2 May 2008 (www. usatoday. com). Duprey, Robert. Is eLearning On Your Hotels Training Menu? Hotel Online. Hotel Online 2 May 2008 (www. hote-online. com) Hotel and Motel Management. 2008 Questex Media Group. 2 May 2008 (www. hotelmotel. com). Lodging Managers. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2007 2 May, 2008 (www. bls. gov). Signature instauration Wide. 2006 Signature Inc. 1 May 2008 (www. signatureworldwide. com). Yahoo Travel. 2008. Yahoo Inc. 2 May 2008 (travel. yahoo. com).

Friday, May 24, 2019

How Media Influences Antisocial Behavior Essay

In this new generation research Indicates that many young people today spend a lot of time In front of the TV or on computer games and so leading to the Implication that media Influences antl-soclal conduct. Psychologists have researched Into explanations on medias govern on unsociable behaviour, one(a) of these explanations being the social learning theory (SLT). This advocates that we model our behaviour on behaviour that we observe whether its antisocial or pro-social behaviour.Children can be evaluate to imitate behaviour illustrated through the media that is successful in gaining the models objectives. Further supporting this explanation, evidence from natural experiments are used as credentials to the link that media Influences not lust antisocial behaviour but scarlet behaviour as well. One Psychologist, Phillips (1983) reinforced this theory by analysing crime statistics for the 10-day conclusion following the publication of heavyweight boxing contests sh receive thro ughout the nation.The research exhibited a significant rise in the number of murders during that said period, thus highlighting how media influences antisocial behaviour. Through further interpretation on the social learning theory this explanation could e questioned, Despite all the psychologists experiments on the theory there Is no real evidence to support it. For instance, in 1993 two boys murdered James Bulger and were said to be inspired by the video Childs Play, all the same later it was conducted by Cumberbatch (2001) that no known link was ever found.It should also be taken into consideration that if two young influential boys were able to land such a violent and Impressionable game what type of parental figures they had on a dally basis and attachments they had with their primary care giver. It can be advocated hat the tiddlerren had other outside affects that defecated they to commit such a crime and that media was not the only reason and thus concluding that the medi a isnt the only cause for antisocial behaviour. Furthermore, another explanation for medias influence of antisocial behaviour is Justification.This vindication implies that violent behaviours may provide a Justification for a childs own violent behaviour, or perhaps even go as far as providing moral guidelines regarding what Is acceptable and unacceptable. It Is suggested that children who act more crisply watch violent elevision programmes In order to relieve their guilt and Justify their own aggression and thus advocating that the media allows them to channel that emotions and making their actions acceptable in their own mind. On further evaluation it should be prominent that programmes have mixed prc-social and antisocial messages.For example, the 198ffs television series The A Team portrayed the typical deluxe figures as behaving violently and so signifying that the negative effects of such programmes support the concept of Justification as Illustrated by Liss and Reinhardt (1 979). Concluding that the use of aggression by pro-social characters provides an impression of moral justiflcation to their antisocial and violent behaviour, with which children already identify. Moreover, an alternative insinuation of explaining medias influence on antisocial behaviour is Cognitive Priming.This refers to the activation of already existing aggressive thoughts and feelings. It highlights why children observe one variety of aggression on television and commit another type of aggression after. imprinting the shown behaviour and recall the memories in a later stimulation in the resent. The magnitude of cognitive priming was established by Josephson (1987). The psychologist looked into this by using hockey players as participants who were deliberately frustrated and then shown a violent or non-violent film where an actor held a walkie-talkie.This resulted in throughout the hockey game the player who had seen the violent clip behaved more aggressive in comparison to those whom where shown the non-violent clip. Josephson advocated that the walkie-talkie held by the referee acted as a trigger for aggression within the hockey player. And so through his it is demonstrated how media can influence behaviours by acting as a catalyst to existing aggressive thoughts. Additionally, another explanation for medias influence on antisocial behaviour is desensitation.This contention underlines that under normal conditions, anxiety about violence inhibits its use. It suggested how media violence may stimulate aggressive behaviour by desensitising children to the effects of violence. This therefore results in the child being more accepting for aggressive and antisocial behaviours. However this is contradicted by Comberbatch (2001) who rgues that people might catch up with used to screen violence but that this does not necessarily mean a person will also get accustomed to violent or antisocial behaviours in their everyday life in the real world.It is claimed that sc reen violence is more likely to make children frightened then frightening thus contradicting the indication that the media desensitises the public to violent and antisocial behaviour. Overall, these explanations conduct valid explanations into how media influences antisocial behaviour. We are able to determine that media does in fact affect the way in which a person behaviour but to what extent is questionable.

Is the Job in Fast-Food Restaurant Exploitative Essay

Exploitation is a term to describe person that are being mistreated. Karl Marx social functiond it to explain the relationship amid the capitalists and proletarians. It is claim that the value of a product is depended by how much labor has paid on it such as time, energy or ideas. Therefore the worth of a product minus the cost and energy to produce a product or other sufficient usages should be equal to what a worker can sack up. However, as the workers own nothing still their labor, they could just now sell their labor to capitalists who own all other pleasants of resources. Marx defined the value that capitalists take international from the workers as surplus value.It should be fair between sellers and buyers, but the capitalists refuse to pay a suitable amount of reward. In order to gain much profit, the capitalists would try as hard as they can to growth the surplus value, and lead to exploitation. In the paragraph below, I go out first start with reason out why Hon g Kong steady victuals workers being exploited. Second I testament focus on the current situation of exploitations in Hong Kong fast nourishment restaurant. In addition, I will express my opinion on the implantation of minimum wage. It could only improve the situation of workers but could not solve the problem of exploitation. grounds for being exploitedWorkers in fast food shop is being exploited mainly because of the tally of workers is far more than the demand of job opportunities. In general, the jobs in fast food restaurant are independent to the education train. It is because most of the job opportunities in fast food restaurants are being modify and divided clearly. With the aid of machines, almost everyone could do the job well no specific skills are needed in fast food restaurants. Therefore this kind of jobs will depend much more on social skills such as communicate with customers, meaning that this kind of jobs is widely open to different types of people.In 2007, there are approximately 32,100 fast food restaurant employee, compare with unemployment workers of age group between 20 to 50, which is over 100,000 in 2007. It is obvious that the supply of potential workers is far more than the job opportunities. Since the workers lack of bargaining power, it means capitalists could heavily exploit and extr second the surplus value from workers. In order to discharge a living or at least subsidies the family, workers have no choice but to accept the offer from capitalists. Exploitation in Hong Kong fast food restaurantThere are two sectors for capitalists to exploit the labors, first is low wage and long working hour , another would be on snub employee welfare, and these two kinds of exploitations are common in fast food restaurant. It is terrified that the first aspect, low wage and long working hour, is a kind of norm in fast food industry. In before minimum wage launched, the average wage of fast food restaurant workers is extremely low, mo st of the fast food restaurant offer the workers with less than $20 per hour.Besides pay for a low wage to workers, long working hour and mechanized move in the fast food industry also reflect exploitation on the workers. As the capitalists treat labor as a product, they want to use this product to gain profit as much and fast as it can. On one perish they reduce the wage of workers, on the other hand the want to increase the rate of getting reward. They therefore encourage their workers to work overtime. Since the wages are too low that workers can not even earn a living for their family, they must need to work longer to fulfill the needs.The research conducted by HKCTU in 2006 showed that the maximum working hour for fast food shop workers may up to 10 hours per day, but still they not earn enough for their family. Overtime working had already been proved that would lead to great chance of getting heart attack. Capitalists sacrifice the lives of their workers to gain profits, which is created by workers. Exploitation can also be found on welfare. If there is a iron relationship between employer and employee, both of them should be protected by laws. However, the laws in Hong Kong show that it is unbalance.The laws protect the employer more than that of employee and it also leads to exploitation. There are some cases that the capitalists vacate to pay for the employee welfare that a workers should have by using loopholes in the laws. The current labor laws stated that for all employees that continuously working for 4 weeks and to each one of the weeks working for not less than 18 hours, he or she will be protected by the law and can enjoy the employee welfare. However, this law comes with a lot of loopholes that let the capitalists have room to avoid paying employee welfare, like force the workers stop working every 3 weeks.It becomes a characteristic in fast food industry because of its unbalance between supply and demand. The working hours of this ki nd of short-term workers may equal to long-term workers, but the worker will never receive the benefits form the welfare. This make the whole thing legal and the exploitation may continue. Some extreme cases even show that capitalists may act illegally to exploit the employee welfare. In 2009, the motorbike couriers from McDonald were discovered that they had forced to be self-employ, meaning that they do not have any paid holiday, insurance or any other employee welfare.It is rather on the edge but since the current labor laws is not strict enough to protect the employee and rather or not the company is abusing the self-employ scheme is hard to be proved, the problem still remain unsolvable. Implantation of minimum wage The minimum wage law could reduce the level of exploitation, but capitalists could develop new methods to exploit the workers. According the findings of HKCTU, the wage of fast food restaurant workers after the launched of minimum wage has been increased for 20% to 50%.It is also glad that some of the fast food restaurants such as Cafe de Coral and Fairwood paid for the dinning hours and lead paid holidays to their workers which are previously do not. They are good news for the workers, but when comparing to the current situation, it could only solve part of the problem of low wage, but the law still not protecting the welfare of workers, current labor laws still rely on 4-18 scheme. In addition, in order to maintain the profits to balance the increase in wage, some of the fast food restaurants implant new machines to their fast food restaurants.It increases the rate of trading, meanings the rate of getting reward increase. Although the capitalists claim that the new machines will not cause any dismiss of workers, new machines further simplified the process in fast food restaurants. Lower the skills level for fast food restaurant jobs indicate that the bargaining power of workers will not increase but further slide down. The set up of minimum wage provide an index for capitalists to exploit. Now they can not reduce the wage of workers, but instead they exploit the workers with brand new ways.The form of exploitation has been change but does not mean that exploitation has disappeared. Conclusion In Hong Kong, the supply of labor is far more than the demand, causes the powerless situation of workers. In order to earn for their families, they could only be exploited. Minimum wage improves the current situation of labor, but could not solve the problem. The only way that balance the relationship between capitalist and workers, may rely on create new laws. If we need to solve the problem, the implant of minimum wage is the first step only.