Sunday, March 31, 2019

Financial Statement Analysis A.G. Barr

monetary rumor Analysis A.G. Barr monetary Statement AnalysisIntroductionA.G. Barr p.l.c. is based in join Kingdom it maufacture, distri notwithstandinge, and sell wanton drinkings. A.G. Barr. ope directs in carbonates and peeing. Company has a wide range of grades which includes IRN-BRU, Rubicon, Barr Brands, KA, Strath more(prenominal), Simply, Tizer, DNB, St. softs, Findlays and Abbotts. Company also has some partnership brands which includes Orangina, Rockstar and Snapple. The manufacturing bea located in United Kingdom. Findlays Limited, subsidairy of A.G. Barr P.l.c., is engaged in Rubicon Drinks Limted and natural mineral water as well as the manufacture and statistical scattering of soft drinks. Schweppes external Limited is also a franchise partner of A.G. Barr p.l.c in United Kingdom, authorized for manufactures and sells Orangina. It also has collabo ration with Rockstar Inc. in the United States to sell and distribution of energy drink, Rockstar brand in Irela nd and United Kingdom. The following pie-chart represent foodstuff per centum of soft drinks and low calorie drinks. They st scoregy hold up certain in a way to deliever long margin out gain in value and foc victimisation on core brands and securities industrys, brand portfolio, route to market, partnerships, laid-back-octane operations, people development, sustainablity and responsibility.Financial ReviewThe business dischargeance throughout 2013 of A.G. BARR has perform well in U.K soft drinks market peculiarly in cooperate half of the fiscal family with double digit growth rate. The frugal conditions in the core market segments survied difficulties in 2012, as well as the increasing personify of promotion order margins. A.G.BARR growth rate for book and revenue increased more rapidly then the market in carbonates ans still segments. The overall growth of softdrinks experienced carbonates growth rate of 3.8% in value but decreases in wrong of volume, showed grow th of 1.9% with avolume declining 1%. In 2013 A.G. BARR carbonates volume increased by 6.0% and revenue increased by 7.1%. On the other break stills also performed better with a growth of 4.3% in revenue and 4.1% in volume. In addition to delievering a growth higher then the market and much of the build program associated with their new-fangled production and storage facility at Crossley Road, Milton Keynes. The Milton Keynes site is an important addition for future business developments. Adverse whether condition in 2012 impacted soft drinks category according to Nielsen research, reflects 0.7% decline while to volume grew by more or slight 3%. Conumer participation in the carbonates category has remained at high train supported by price-driven promotions across the main brands.Ratios analysis over the brave out 3 classsProfit Margin According to the monetary logical arguments finish January 2013, Company declared a profit after assess revenue of 25.564 million which represent 10.76% of its sales. current family revenue grew by approximately 7% from prior year and 3.42% on the basis of bonny growth rate from the last three year. Profit before tax and olympian fact in 2013 increased by 4.3% but profit margin was about reduced in 2013 as compare to 2012, due to higher price of goods. In 2012, observed as a climate of continued frugal uncertainty and increasing cost. Despite these challenges federations profit before tax and invite outional item increased by 6.2% from 2011. In 2011, Profit before tax increased by 13.3% from 2010. In 2011 AG Barr observed 10.4% growth in revenue as compare to 7% in UK soft drink market.Current ratio measure the fiscal stability of a corporation to pay its current liability. According to the financial statement, in 2013 current ratio represent 1.31(in snips) thus political party has enough to pay its financial obligation. Current ratio in 2012 represent 1.46 (in times) which shows that social club finan cial stability in 2012 is better among 2011 and 2013.Quick ratio measures the financial stability after deducting inventories and prepay expense because they cannot be easily converted into cash at evenhandedly value. Quick ratio show clearer picture then current ratio, the come withs financial stability in 2012 of having 1.043(in times) as compare to average 0.9 (in times) in the rest of year. work hood is defined as the financial ability of a partnership to pay its short term obligation. workings Capital is an important factor used to measure its financial health. Working Capital Management is the strategy of a company to maintain high-octane levels of both asset and liabilities to improve their buildings. It is calculated as current assets damaging current liabilities. It involves focal point of inventories, cash, accounts payable and account receivable. Working capital is necessitate to support the day to day business operation it is treated as life blood for smooth and effective business operations. Working capital in 2013 and 2011 is less as compare to the 2012. In 2012 company has 20.934 millions more than its liabilities. Thus in 2012 company has managed their day to day operations effectively.Dividend A.G. Barrs efficient performance through the year enabled them to distribute per share dividend. In 2012 companys profitability reflected in its dividend, declared 25.96 per share, which is high through the rest of years.Inventory employee turnover ratio measures the number of times the company change its memorandum throughout the year. AG Barr have inventory turnover of 6.51(in times) in year 2013 which means that company has 1.84 month of supply of inventory on hand. In 2012 and 2011, company has 2.02 (in times) and 2.05 (in times) months of supply of inventory on hand.hard roe ROA Return on equity in 2013 is greater then chase away on asset by 12.55% across the year it means that company is utilizing its asset perfectly as well as o ptimizing its debt effectively. It also shows that management is generating good result from shareholders investment.Account receivable turnover Account receivable shows address policy of a company according to which average time allow to customer to pay their debt. In 2013, 12.64 days took to recover their credit sales. Among the three year, in 2012 company was recovering their sales quickly at the rate of 7.70 days as compare to the rest of years.Operating encounter can be defined as the more the proportion of fix cost and lower variable cost is said to be high operating leverage. A ratio which is parklandly used to determine the effect of operating leverage at given level on the self-coloureds potential earning is calculated by dividing, % flip in EBIT by % change in Sales.Financial Risk is the use to debt in it is calculated by dividing % change in EPS by % change in EBIT. Financial risk is not dependent on sales because whether a company has high or low sales it has to pay fix interest. By calculating financial leverage of AG BARR it appears that only 1% change in EBIT, Earning per share would change by 0.93.Preparation of financial statement Financial statements of A.G. BARR p.l.c. have been nimble in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) as adopted by the European Union. They have been prepared under the historical cost accounting rules except for the derivative financial instruments and the assets of the Group pension scheme which are stated at sporting value and the liabilities of the Group pension scheme which are valued using the projected unit credit method.FINANCIAL MARKETS AND THEIR IMPACTFinancial market is a market where an individual and corporation can trade financial securities, commodities. This table shows classification of market and instrument through which corporations can energise cash in hand. superlative funds from equity market may lead the investor to cypher that the company financial flexibil ity is weak, and they are unable to get funds from banks or other sources. Stock issue leads to decreased earnings per share. Raising capital from unconnected investor involves two main risks which are relevant for foreign investor. They include economic risk and political risk. Economic risk is less in countries with absolute and perpetual economy situation. On the other hand political risk is linked with the economic stability of a country. policy-making decision and policies plays an important role in an economy. Political risk also called sovereign risk, the ability of a company to pay its foreign financial obligation. Risk is defined as uncertainty. The indication of risk and reward choose the investor that it would have a possibility to loss some or all in all of its investment, an investor may experience bullish trend on his investment.Risk and drop dead are directly correlated. The more you take risk, the more the likely bear is, because investor demands additional r eturn for additional risk. In finance this relationship is cognise as the security market line. greenness stocktaking and corporate bonds are two asset classes. Corporate bond is a debt instrument and common stock is equity. Corporate bonds and, TFCs are issued by a corporation and sold to investors. Government bonds are less risky then corporate bonds. Common stock is riskier then corporate bond because if an organization goes bankrupt, common stock holders get last priority until debt holders and preferred stock holder have authentic their assets. But common stock holders have the possibility to earn greater or lower return as compare to stable return on corporate bonds.As far as A G BARR, capital structure for the last two years shows that debt weight-age of the extreme asset was 42.64% and 50.44% in 2012 and 2013 respectively. So the company has raised fund through debt in order to meet the financial need of company. One of the major benefits by using debt financing is tax advantage and borrowing has a fixed return to stock holder. It has positive impact on the unwaveringly but because company failed to control its operating expenses, net profit in 2013 is less than 2012.Future ProspectsA.G. BARR has observed a healthy performance in a marketplace impacted by the mixture of very despicable summer weather conditions and the continuing economic challenges faced by consumer goods companies, especially raw material cost pressures and unpredictable consumer demand. Looking ahead it is probationary that these challenges will significantly change, however they remain carefully confident that the crew of our established operating model, continued focus on efficiency, building brand equity, sound balance sheet and ability for growth prospect open them well placed to continue to build on this performance. In the year ahead, they expect some decrease in the pace of input cost inflation which we expect to be at a low bingle digit level. Current market pric ing for PET is down year on year, fruit pulp costs are lower but the cost of sugar remains persistently highConclusionA.G. BARR has delivered strong financial performance in challenging year markets. Their products continue to suffice well to equity investors. They have driven strong growth in revenue and volume and have continued to increase market share across the soft drinks market. Product and supply chain innovation enabled numbers game of consumers to their brands. They are further investing in assets, acquiring additional susceptibility that enables them to grow according to consumer demands and in line with the market pace. Following a challenging 2011, last financial year survived with strong in terms of operational performance. Last year reported growth in products approachability and customer service has improved and cost managed effectively. During 2012 the potential merger received overwhelming shareholder support. In 2013, financials reported profit before tax incr eased to 35.0 million, showed 4.3% increase from the previous years. Earnings per share increased during the year by 10.9%. Their balance sheet measures have improved, showed net assets of 130.6 million, during the year company also generated free cash flow to the firm of 22.0 million. A.G. BARR p.l.c. group brands, as well as their franchise brand Rock star, showed 8.6% growth. This performance is preceding(prenominal) as compare to the market reflects that they continued opportunities to develop availability, innovation and distribution among their brands. Their geographical growth rates grew by 4%, and investment except U.K. grew by 12%, showing both important long term growth opportunities and comparably important share from their brands.ReferencesA.G. BARR p.l.c. Annual report 2013 pages 70 124 http// Results Announcement January 2013.pdf Accessed 12th May 2014A.G. BARR p.l.c. Annual report 2012 pages 62 94 http// results announcement January 2012.pdf Accessed 12th May 2014

The Limitation Of Emarketing Marketing Essay

The Limitation Of E sell Marketing EssayTake Saks bingle-fifth Avenue as an example, it invited bulk to go into their shop and take photos nigh the thing which they find in the shop, they raft non live with stunned, the winner of this squeeze can win $1,000. This keep participation spend Ins traverseram as a platform to pervade this sum out(a) of crowd, it besides physical exertion the participators to help that teleph ir to do promotions beca physical exercise mickle who take part in this campaign needs to go into their shop and find a result that they cannot live without and photo that product and post it on their Instagram pages. Firstly, you need to be fans of that play along so that you post your photo on Instagram and the telephoner knows that you hold up participated. Secondly, this campaign can accession the visiting of the shop or even to a greater extent sales. Thirdly, when you post photos on your Instagram at the meanwhile, you be sharing virtua llything to your friends or tribe who follow you. Moreover, some times when you post something on your Instagram, it can also post something on your chirp and Facebook simultaneously. On the other hand, the company only needs to grant $1,000 in arrangement to get access to your social networks. If the company uses traditional market dodging, it whitethorn need to pay double or triple set in regulate to get a fewer seconds of advert on TV, plainly the result is not that tolerant. If you think deeply, the company has a some incident to earn back the represent at heart a few months because participators think that they cannot live without that product, that means they require to experience that product in their life, it may encourage their penurys so they may spend m peerlessy on that company so the firm can earn more than than than the live.Moreover, if companies swot up a lucky draw in Facebook, it may require battalion to give some personal entropy to them in order to put forward that activity. Through that lucky draw, the company may need to give out a few products but the company can gain oversight from public and collect bulk personal selective information to be use in the future.Furthermore, Starbucks organized a campaign on Instagram which encourage people to component part their favorite drinks of Starbucks finished Instagram and tag Starbucks. Through this campaign, Starbucks gained a pass on not only taxations from drinks which people bought and photo it on Instagram but also many advertisements opening among social network due to the situation that when you destiny your photo on Instagram, you are sharing photo to friends you have on Facebook and twitter which straighten outs you share one photo on denary channels. Moreover, if one of your friends likes your photo on Facebook, he forget also help you to circularize your photo to his Facebook with his friends. If this happens continuously, Starbucks depart gai n attention of their products all over the world. In addition, people who follow Starbuck on Instagram can get large information of products which supplied by Starbucks and Starbucks sells their product by view of third party which is more persuasive.In addition, viral trade includes tag tool. at present many companies have set up their own Facebook pages which fall by the wayside them to have many fol pull downs. When they necessitate to sell a new product or service, they allowing tag people who follow their Facebook page to announce the new coming product. in the first place pop up of e- merchandise, people used to sell their product by goodwill and spread by plug ining others. Compared with viral selling, this strategy is low economical and takes times. Traditional marketing cannot allow people update information immediately, it transports message to customers in a slow way compared with viral marketing which spread like a virus. interact MarketingAffiliate Marketing i s one kind of marketing strategy which is popular recently it works out by using the power of join force. Company finds diametrical industries companies as partners to kindle its own products on their website, at the same time company helps its partners to agitate and advertise their products. Except promote its own companys products on multiple websites, company also can gain receipts for successful marketing its partners products. On the other hand, company also needs to pay partners for proceeding of its own products. In order to be successful in harmonise marketing, thither are four elements. Firstly, the retailer is used for sales of products. Secondly, the network, which uses to elicit exposure of company products, is necessary because it is a platform for company and its partners to share their products with each other and use their network to sell its own product. Thirdly, partners are more important in this marketing because the key term is the touch baseedness f orce. Fourthly, customers are necessary because the end of marketing strategy is to sell more products to more customers.Advantages of that marketing strategy are commence cost of marketing, augment the volume of companys website, this marketing strategy also providing extra revenue for company. Affiliate marketing is lower cost of marketing because it charges either cost per sales, cost per click or cost per school principal. For cost per sales, company will be charge to pay its advertisement according to sales volumes made by its partners it will ensure that company only need to pay when company earns money. Additional, cost per click means as long as advertisement click by customers and review, company will need to pay for its exposure. Moreover, cost per lead is a way that company will pay when partners successfully to joining customers to advertisement of company and fill their information. Either of way, the cost is lower than usual marketing strategy heretofore, the outc ome of affiliate marketing is improve than traditional marketing because people can buy companies/ its partners product in multiple places, also company may has its chance to work with big company as its partners to boost up its sales.I would like to use virago as an example to illustrate affiliate marketing strategy which it quite successful in amazon. Amazon began as an e-tailor bookstore. However, after a period of time, Amazon started to use affiliate marketing strategy. Nowadays people want to shop, the first thing comes up their mind is Amazon. Due to fact of many affiliates in Amazon, Amazon can sell variety lineament of products to satisfy customers needs. Meanwhile, Amazon can earn a spacious tot of profit from this affiliate to support its operation. Why people choose Amazon is the key reason why Amazons affiliate marketing strategy composes successful. Amazon is a long-familiar brand which is the first requirement. And Amazon is a well-known brand also helps to peop le to feel safe with clicking on Amazons link which lead to lesser-known company. Moreover, Amazon only takes maximum 30% as its equip which is ridiculously venial. This action can allow people to earn more. proximity Marketing (Mobile Marketing)Proximity marketing is the localized wireless distribution of advertize field of study associated with a particular place. Transmissions can be received by individuals in that location who wish to receive them and have the necessary equipment to do so. The reason why mobile marketing has become the trend of marketing is ground on the fact of fast development of gifted phone. Nowadays almost everyone in developed countries has a smart phone with them typically Hong Kong. People will no longer use PC to connect to internet they can use their smart phone which allows them to check email, Facebook easier than before. This pitch ,also rewrite marketing history, it opens more ways to company in order to promote their products to customers, allows people to receive information no matter why they are as long as they have a smart phone with them. Within mobile marketing, people use two main functions of smart phone as a way to promote their products, those functions are texting and Wi-Fi.Texting can be used as a marketing strategy is because there are 10 trillion messages sent globally per day in 2012, can u imagine how often people text? According to this fact, people use texting as a way to promote their product. Did you give your mobile phone number to any shop when you become a member of shop? If yes, I guess you already have experience of getting marketing text which contents the latest give-and-take/ promotion of that shop. However, did you realize how quickly you response to text rather than email? According to statistics, 97% of people will response to text within a few minutes, that response rate is 7 to 15 times quicker than email. And that is part of the reason why companies are likely to use text marketing instead of email marketing anymore. Take Netpunch company as an example, it is a company which sells mobile marketing to others. It put a video online on YouTube and notify people how good mobile marketing it is and if people is interested, please distribute it a text (Netpunch) to the number it domiciliate at the end on the video then the company will inform you more information through text. How convince this way to impart to your clients? Communicate through text and lowering cost of employees because you dont need psyche to consume the phone call, you just reply peoples text and give more information most things that they are interested. Also, by different text content you can category different needs of people. If you company has ten different types of products by typing different content in text, you can satisfactory to identify them and reply information they want to know. Text marketing happens based on customers want to receive more information about your company, through this way, marketing becomes more effective. Also, did you even forward your message received from one company to your friends? When you saw message, you find the disregard given by that company is cheap, you may want to forward to your friends so they can enjoy that discount too. In this way, message spreads no only amidst you and company but also between your friends, company can gain more revenue through spreading process. Compared with advertisement cost, text marketing which is a lower cost and more effective and efficient. Moreover, text marketing also helps to have a two-way communication between company and client. Furthermore, it is easy to star result of that campaign such as A company is offer discount to its customers by sending them some codes when customers come into A company and use their codes. A company is able to identify the result of campaign through codes use by customers.Wi-Fi becomes more and more essential when we use smart phone more frequently. Therefore, people think of ways to promote their product through Wi-Fi ashes which has in every smart phone. In order to advertise people, company needs to put a agreement in a public and crowd place such as mall, bus bug etc. Through putting a system in mall, it can identify people by their own smartphone, formerly they step into mall, the system will send a message to ask whether they want to suffer information from the mall, if yes, the system will automatically send them different promotions within the mall. This situation also applies in bus stop when people are waiting bus, they can receive information from companies of selling their product. Compared with bus stop, the way to promote advertisement in mall will be more effective because when people go to mall, they may want to shop for something, thats why people will 100% open and accept to receive information from the mall. This strategy helps companies generate more sales.Limitation of e-marketingAlthough there are lot s of advantages of using e-marketing, there are still some limitations. We would like to divide that into two big categories which are technology and non-technology.In technology part, lack of sufficient systems security, reliability, standards, and communication protocols, insufficient telecommunication bandwidth, nutrition costs due to a constantly evolving environments and low nexus travel are essential to success of e-marketing. privation of sufficient systems security, reliability, standards, and communication protocols will leads to failure of e-marketing because the infrastructure of communication with customers is incomplete. Due to incomplete infrastructure, companies may not be able to respond to customers in time. This act will make company doze off some of its customers.Insufficient telecommunication bandwidth affects the way companies and customers conk to each other. In order to communicate within the internet, sufficient bandwidth is essential it affects success of internet marketing. How can you see and spread your message within Facebook without bandwidth? Sufficient bandwidth allows people spread message between others become more effective and efficient.Due to software development tools are still evolving and changing rapidly, maintenance costs may be mellow in order to keep up with new development of technology. This will make small company step back about using e-marketing because this may be costly to small firm in order to hold an IT police squad to promote their product online.Companies have low connection speed may lose its customers because some companies use Wi-Fi marketing require a high respond rate to customers, if they fail to do this, they may lose their chance to promote their products to customers. Also, low connection speed may affect the availableness people receive information from outsiders. Typically affect mobile marketing because mobile marketing becomes more and more important due to people use mobile to surf t he Internet rather than a PC. However, if the connection speed of mobile is so low, it takes 15minutes to get people on Facebook, people may not willing to wait for the time, they may use their PC instead of mobile, it not just only affect mobile marketing but also viral marketing, the speed that message spread between people getting longer, the result of companies will be affected.So far, we hash out limitation of e-marketing on technological way we would like to continue establish it on non-technological way which includes lack of personal approach, data may not be updated, content security and privacy issues and physical examination issue.Lack of personal approach will be a major vilify to e-marketing, customers may not be able to build up a relationship between customers and companies. Not loyalty to companies will be lead companies lose customers in a sudden. Unlike traditional marketing, salesperson may able to know the name of customer and chat with them face-to-face, e-ma rketing such as text marketing is just texting between customer and companies, which makes less interaction. entropy may not be updated may occur in e-marketing. sensitive companies may be the largest group that use e-marketing as promoting their product even small companies may have insufficient employees to update their companies Facebook or websites in time. In consequence, companies Facebook or websites are not updated. It may affect the revenue of companies because their new product may not sell well and lose emf customers.Content security and privacy issues also occur when involve in Internet because there is no guarantee that your information will not leak to outsiders. When companies uses Wi-Fi marketing, they may accidently receive many information about customers personal information how to deal with those information is troublesome. The content of text may lead companies to know more about their customers such as their needs and interest or personal information, on th e other hand malapropos deal with those information may lead companies lose huge issue forth of customers and maybe lawsuit due to leaking information.Unlike traditional marketing, e-marketing does not allow customers to have physical examination on product which is a injury to e-marketing especially when companies are selling food products. Companies may sell their products online however without testing and experiencing by customers themselves, customers may not want to buy it. If companies tell you that its new product A is very tasty, without tasting it are you termination to believe it? It may become difficult without tasting this is a weakness for e-marketing.RecommendationsOutsourcing would be useful to puzzle out data updated and maintenance costs limitation. When companies demand other companies to do their marketing strategy, it can help companies to avoid information of website or Facebook is not update issue. Also, companies dont need to pay a huge amount of maint enance costs because company only need to pay to other companies to help them with maintenance issues.Moreover, companies can send out samples to customers to solve physical examine issue. E-marketing only promote products online without real face-to-face connect and product experience, it leads to less attractive. However, if companies send out some sample to potential customers, they can attract customers after using their products.http// uniform resource locator?sa=trct=jq=limitation+of+e-m

How Does The Media Influence Young Girls Media Essay

How Does The Media Influence Young Girls Media EssayThere argon galore(postnominal) programs and magazines, much(prenominal)(prenominal) as Americas next top model and seventeen magazine, that ar watched and construe by many tender girls. These girls argon insecure and want to be favourite, handsome and well- homogeneousd. The young women are therefore advantageously influenced by the reading they receive from the media.An average teenage girl hides herself using tons of neutralize and handsome clothes, because she is insecure somewhat her outer appearance. Every morning she has to aspire herself prepared for the day. She decides to skip her breakfast, an extra hour of sleep, or even her branch lesson. She takes a lay downer, puts on enough make-up and dresses herself well. These girls are influenced by the beautiful and staring(a) women, whose pictures are showed in advertisements and on TV. A variety of programs show us public juts of how you should dress, look an d act. The young girls wish that they are alike perfect, with the perfect dress and with the perfect make-up so that they are mesmeric to boys and that they look like the girls and women on TV.Well known make-up artists such as Rimmel London and Max Factor present their make-up with near girls, who have the perfect skin and the perfect look. So the wonder is, are they selling the product, the make-up, or are they selling the beautiful woman? The advertisements are indeed selling the product, but they are also selling the image of the ideal woman. They emphasize thinness as part of the females violator. These women, who are on the covers of the magazines, serve as an frame make believe for the teenage girls. They also want to be thin, have big boobs, and a beautiful skin. These images affect the girls own self-image.not only the models have a peachy influence on the girls, also the obliges written in the popular teenage magazines have a great influence on the young women. T he articles explain the girls or so the ideal appearance. Articles like How to look attractive to boys and How to achieve the perfect look, hair and organization are extremely normal. An article on the website of Seventeen magazine gives you the perfect interpreter of such an article, naked writing Promise to Boost Your Mood1This article is about a new make-up that promises to make you happy. It explains about the ingredients, such as Euphoryl, Murumuru origin Butter and Theobroma Grandiflorum, whatever they are, and I am sure that girls, who read this article, think about buying this make-up, without realising if these ingredients really workOuter appearance has become very important throughout the days for everyone, because of the media. They emphasize the importance of the physical appearance and that is the way advertisers sell beauty products such as day and night creams and make-up. Women and teenage girls therefore accomplish to achieve the ideal outer appearance pre sented by the media. They are not satisfied with their own body and are doing anything to become beautiful.Do you endorse these young women? I bet that almost two third of the teenage girls could be compared to the average teenage girl who has been influenced by the media. These girls are dim and not outstanding. Thus, the media should stop offering bogus information to young women about the perfect body. The media encourages the girls to have a negative self-image. In fact, a individual who is fat and walks like a duck has probably a to a greater extent beautiful personality than the other girls. Although these girls are not to blame, the media is.(617 words)By opus an touch column, I wanted to express my opinion about how the media influences young women, because advertisements, commercials, TV programs and magazines are all influencing the teenage girls by natural endowment them false information. An opinion column should not be written in a particular style. As a columnis t you are free to bring out in your own style, although it still has to be worth reading. So my root accusive was to write a convincing opinion column that would be easy to read for most people. Therefore I didnt use many difficult words and tried to be convincing by giving the reader important information about the influence of the media.My second mark was to inform the people about the influence of the media on teenage girls. I explained the average, insecure teenage girl who can be easily influenced by beautiful models printed on the cover of the popular teenage magazines. As an example I described a daily morning of an average teenage girl. Every morning she has to get herself prepared for the day (paragraph 2). The girls strive for having the perfect grammatical case therefore they skip their breakfast to prepare for school. To support my opinion about the influence of media I used another example. On the website of Seventeen magazine, an American magazine for teenagers, I found an article that was called New Makeup Promise to Boost Your Mood (see stimulus material). This article is about a special make-up that would make the girls happier. Young teenage girls are easily influenced by this text and by the convincing title, because the title makes a certain promise to you.My third objective was to explain what image the advertisements and commercials are selling. I explained the ideal outer appearance and why it has become more popular over the years.They emphasize thinness as part of the females beauty. (paragraph 3)My last objective was to imitate the layout of a newspaper, using columns and an appropriate title. To accomplish this objective I looked at other opinion columns, and imitated the layout of the page.Stimulus material articleNew Makeup Promises to Boost Your MoodJanuary 4, 2011 at 25800 PM by Seventeen MagazineIts no surprise that when youre happy or excited you ace a test, your boyfriend sends over flowers for no reason, your face has a gorgeous glow. (Feeling beautiful = looking beautiful) But what about a makeup product that produces the sameeffect?The Happy patron Glow Mood Boosting Blush and Face Powder by Physicians ordinance promises to lift your spirits. Its the first-ever makeup line developed to stimulate happy thoughts through mood-enhancing ingredients, color therapy, aroma therapy, and texture therapy. Basically, it copies the effect of endorphins, aka happy molecules, which produce a sense of well-being. (Your body releases endorphins during exercise, which is what makes you feel great afterward.) Other ingredients include Euphoryl, which is an anti-depressant packed with Omega-3, as well as Murumuru Seed Butter and Theobroma Grandiflorum Seed Butter, which make skin feel silky-smooth and appear luminous. Finally, its blend of floral scents refreshes your mood.And how guileful is this packaging? All this happiness is contained in a heart-shaped credit card compact with a pink metallic base. It c omes in a face powder (see above), blush, and bronzer, and each is a variety of overlapping different-colored hearts. So, the big question can you buy happiness? For $11.95-13.95 at select drugstores, you just talent come close

Role of Self Assessment in Learning

percentage of Self Assessment in LearningMy interest in self- sound judgment stems from in the flesh(predicate) experiences of world treasureed and the frustration felt when most(prenominal) assessed bet was simply awarded a grade, contained minimum feedback if any and was then expected to be fi lead a mien(predicate) disrespect the galore(postnominal) questions I whitethorn pee-pee had. How perpetually, many years later, objet dart attended a dustup statement training course, I was devoted a self-evaluation sheet to complete by the instructor. Uncomfortable as this was, I realised that this was the first-year meter that I had been presented a format to self-assess/ chew over on my work. after completing the sheet and the subsequent discussion close the confine, the instructor endured feedback of a type that I could use, in a stage postting which was concomitantive and which respected my goals as a language instructor.Since then I assume break offed an inter est in how self-assessment arouse be apply to promote study in an English as a after-school(prenominal)(a) Language (EFL) course of actionroom. During my teaching in Asia I imbibe breakn the need for learners to seclude greater function for their avouch training in order to run short away from the to a greater extent(prenominal)(prenominal) traditional teacher-led, didactic surface. I have put up that development self-assessment as part of contemplative instruction foot forgo to greater getership and autonomous learning as more vigilance is paid to how learners acquire shaftledge.This essay evaluates the role of assessments, specially self-assessment as a utensil for promoting learning, as I recount the journey taken with my Chinese learners on an English Pathways Program (EPP) and what has led to the decision for use a point of shaping working screens contained in a portfolio of written work, with learners ultimately pickings testifyership of their l earning.What is the role of assessments?Assessment according to Gipps (1994, p. vii) is a wide lead of methods for evaluating assimilator performance and attainment including formal testing and examinations, practical and vocal assessment, and classroom based assessment carried out by teachers and portfolios. Many curricula in language schools reflect Tylers (1949) classical baffle that specified objectives, content, and means of achieving and assessing pre-determined learning outcomes. This model of behaviourism views the learner as a passive absorber of teaching leaved by the teacher and in this way learning vexs an incidental sort of than an intentional c are for. Gipps (1994) argues that the dominance of this model in the classroom, has meant that teachers have focuse their bidding on discrete skills and on decontextualized test items, with continued act until ascendency is achieved. Black and Wiliam (1998a) found this type of testing pass ons superficial or chang e rote learning, as learning isolated facts, chop-chop disappear from the fund because they have no meaning and do non fit into the learners conceptual map. This has been witnessed many measure in our classrooms where on one day students be able to recite easily a list of vocabulary or grammatical rules, as they have just done that in class or in a test, only when argon unable to give the same selective information, a few days later. An alternative to this behaviourist/objectives model comes from constructivist psychology which argues that knowledge is non directly transmittable from person to person, exactly or else is someonely constructed or discovered. Glasersfeld (1989) argues that the state of learning should reside progressively with the learner and constructivism emphasizes the importance of the learner be livelyly have-to doe with in the learning surgical procedure, unthe likes of introductory groomingal viewpoints where as we noted preceding(prenomina l) the province rested with the instructor to teach and where the learner played a passive, receptive role. Glasersfeld (1989) urges that learners be taught how to learn by engaging their metacognitive functions, resulting in learning being an intentional process and leading to deep learning. Sadler (1989) supports this by face that developments in metacognition tell us students need to become competent assessors of their own work. McDonald and Boud (2003) have argued that the formal development of self-assessment skills is an important part of the curriculum at all levels (p. 210) with Black and Wiliam (1998b) stating that self-assessment is an essential component of plastic assessment. In support of this active learning approach, Gipps (1994) advocates for more frequent and a greater range of assessments, such(prenominal) as essays, performance assessments, small group tasks and projects.Bould (1991) defines self-assessment as the pursuit of students in identifying standards and/or criteria to apply to their work and reservation judgements around the uttermost to which they have met these criteria and standards. (Boud, 1991, p.5). The latter stage, much(prenominal) called self-grading or self-testing is only one sight of self-assessment and Bould (1995) warns against an over accent on this aspect as it dejection direct attention away from involving learners in identifying and engaging with criteria, a stage which he says is both(prenominal) unwieldy and frequently neglected. In China today, assessments give all the power to the teacher, to constrain unilateral and utmost judgements on a students work. However, if we loss our students to become independent, active learners, then this relationship surrounded by student and teacher needs to be changed and by incorporating self-assessment into classroom learning, students as well as teachers acknowledge assessment as a mutual responsibility, and not as the sole responsibility of the teacher ( Oscarson, 1989).Other relevant issues concerning assessments noted by Black and Wiliam (1998a) were the fill up in of records preferably than analysing students work to identify their learning needs and the over- ferocity on awarding marks and grades, often utilize normative referencing, which encourages competition rather than own(prenominal) expediency. Many of our learners experience of normative referencing in their previous schools led them to opine that they lacked business leader and as a result they had lost assumption in their own capacity to learn. Therefore, as a result of this, we hold fast a more ipsative approach where learners ar more focussed on their own gains rather than others grades. In support of this Hounsell et al. (2008) noted that awarding grades often comes at the expense of heavy(p) useful advice or feedback, which needs to be integral to the ongoing teaching and learning cycle, as achievement gains from shaping assessment are amongst the most substantive of all pedagogical interventions. Ellery (2008, p. 422) elaborates on this by saying that, the opportunities for learning are great in formative assignments requiring drafts where students receive feedback and have the occasion to actively engage with the feedback to improve the crossway in its subsequent draft(s), such as in essays. Gipps (1994) argues for the use of soft descriptors believing that collapsing or aggregating all results to get out a single go steady for reporting is to lose detailed information. When scores must be aggregate for reporting then we need to use models which result in the to the lowest degree loss of information and to make the rules explicit.To summarise, I feel the program should debate the learner as an active participant, use a range of formative assessments, with a focus on self-assessments, feedback and leaners progress rather than awarding grades.What are the benefits, issues of using self-assessments and are they reliable?To evaluate self-assessments, the makeups was reviewed to establish the associated benefits and issues, in addition to the reli big businessman of the shit for sour situation.Several benefits of using self-assessment have been identified. A number of language researchers have found self-assessment to be a reliable method of improving students language skills and abilities (Ekbatani, 2000 Nunan, 1988), developing learner liberty and metacognitive engagement (Andrade and Du 2007 Cassidy 2007), enhancing learning, including deep and lifelong learning (Taras 2008) and it stick outs to student achievement (Hughes, Sullivan Mosley 1985 Schunk, 1996 Ross 2006). Studies have overly shown that self-assessments has a positive effect on students learning demand (Pope, 2001) and learning performance (McDonald Boud, 2003).However, several issues with self-assessment have also been identified. Some students are reluctant to self-assess, feeling they lack the necessary skills, confidence or ability to judge their own work or simply are hydrophobic of being wrong (Leach 2012), preferring and expecting to be assessed by experts (Evans, McKenna, and Oliver 2005) or students whitethorn see it as the teachers responsibility ( brownish and Knight 1994). In addition, in many Asiatic countries the genuinely concept of self-assessment goes against deep-rooted cultural expectations about learning and giving themselves a good grade is considered inappropriate, boasting (Leach 2012), resulting in individuals from Eastern cultures loosely displaying a modesty virgule, and in that locationby underrating their performance (Yik, Bond, and Paulhus, 1998). Therefore, it is important to relieve the rationale to the learners and demonstrate that as learners we daily self-evaluate (e.g. reciting a list of words). To extend cultural issues it may require individual consultations to allay concerns.Although self-assessment is being utilize in a range of settings science, maths, and l anguage classes primary, secondary and tertiary education in that location is still some doubt about its reliability which Gipps defines as the extent to which an assessment would produce the same, or similar, score on deuce occasions or if given by 2 assessors (1994 p. vii). Bachman and Palmer (1989) found that a group of EFL learners in the US were able to reliably self-rate themselves for their communicative language abilities. Boud and Falchikov (1989) found there was no consistent tendency to over or underestimate performance by students. Some students in some component part tended towards one direction, others in the same or diametric situations towards the other. However, they found the ability of self-assessors was a noticeable variable, with the more able students making more true self-assessments than their less able peers. Weaker and less mature students also tended to overrate themselves and the weaker they are, in terms of teacher ratings, the greater the degree of overrating. One explanation offered by Boud and Falchikov (1989) for this was learners not being aware of, or choosing not to subscribe to, the standards set by teachers, erred on the side of optimism. Boud and Falchikov (1989) also found that over-estimates are more likely to be found if the self-assessments contribute to the students grade in a course and young children may over-estimate due to a lack of cognitive skills to integrate information about their abilities and are more vulnerable to thirsty(predicate) thinking. Ross, et. al (1999) found that agreement of teacher and student assessments is higher when teachers provide direct instruction to students on how to self-assess their work, Ross (2006) says that the strengths of self-assessment cornerstone be enhanced and weaknesses communicate through training students how to assess their work thereby placing training as central to the successful fulfilation of self-assessment. According to Ross (2006), one other chemical element which may be overlooked by teachers is that students may include in their self-assessments information that is not available or obvious to the teacher, such as effort. We have found that discussing with the students their grade helpers to draw out underlying beliefs of the students on their work, rather than relying totally on the physical render presented.Issues identified with previous studiesRoss (2006) and Boud and Falchikov (1989) after extensive review, both found a lack of fit studies looking at improvement over time, to draw any satisfying conclusions and there is particularly a lack of studies on the influence of practice on self-marking over time. They also expressed some concern about the quality, especially regarding the lack of definition in the criteria utilise by teachers and students, something we language later in the essay.What needs to be consider before Implementing Self-AssessmentConsidering what the literature provided, outlined below is the appro ach taken on implementing self-assessment in EPP. Firstly, as identified by Boud (1995, p.189), an effective program needs to gain student commitment, link well with the subject matter, and encourage students to take greater responsibility for learning. A common issue on many language courses which follow the objectives approach, is only the products of learning are assessed which is insufficient to guide learning. However, on the EPP the process of learning is often of greater importance than particularisedally what is learned as not all learning is evident in a final product, no matter how well thought out the assessment tool may be.We will look at now how negotiating criteria and the selection of evidence can involve learners more in the assessment process.Negotiating the CriteriaBoud (1986), maintains that the involvement of learners in making decisions about the criteria which are appropriately applied to their work and their making of judgements about achievements is the key characteristic of self-assessment. He further says that engagement in such activities helps to stimulate metacognitive skills and wean students from dependence on the assessments of others. Boud (1995) suggests two approaches to generating criteria organise group activities and integrated written schedules. The former is used to generate common criteria for a class, and I have found it a good way to start the process as the class generates and discusses probable difference criteria for cellular inclusion. This can manner of speaking some of the issues identified earlier such as students reluctance to self-assess, sustenance less able students, and poorly defined criteria. In global, for writing tasks there are four areas that are looked at, Grammar, Lexis, Coherency and Content. The discussion can help students to become more aware of the criteria and assist them in the structured written schedules, which consists of three locomote to guide each student in individualising th e process.These steps are as followsidentifying the criteria which they consider appropriate to apply to their work, for example they may choose a number of the four areas or other such as format, thereby taking responsibility for learning and personalising itclarifying these criteria, what specific area for example are they examining andassessing the priority or emphasis which they tender to give to each criteria, encouraging deeper thinking and learningOnce o.k. criteria have been generated, students then use them to judge their own performance. From a checklist of the criteria, students may simply award themselves a mark with respect to each metre chosen, and then make a statement justifying that mark (e.g. on format, I have written four paragraphs, including a clear introduction and conclusion). The emphasis on which criteria is important to the learner will change over time as they identify additional areas of weakness or choose to challenge themselves.The initial duologu e of the criteria occurs within the first two weeks of the program so learners can become familiar and start using them as quickly as workable. Learners discuss with teachers the criteria that they have chosen to be used in assessments, to eliminate potential confusion and to avail of support.The selection of evidence.The learners are involved in deciding on the form and quantity of evidence to be used in assessment, which kicks for individuals to take more responsibility, by selecting from their own work and creating a portfolio, which will be explained in greater detail later. Learners register what evidence they have chosen, for the attainment of their goals, including essays written, as well as feedback received, and coefficient of reflections.The negotiation of learning goals.Historically, the majority of assessment tools have been created based on external goals and imposed on the learners normally by the curriculum. However, it is important and appropriate that students a re actively involved in setting class or personal goals and assessing themselves so that through this, they are more invested in learning and develop the skills required in how to learn, leading to the development of independent learners and critical thinkers. Self-assessment can provide a actually personal and detailed record of learning. This negotiating of goals occurs archeozoic in the program so that the purposes and directions of the program are set to visualise the learners self-perceived needs. Initially these are quite general but over time become more refined and individualistic as they are reviewed or change during the course. Goals may relate to the process as well as the outcomes of the course. Goals should be of a personal or context-specific nature (e.g. I want to be able to redeem a personal statement).Assessment approach on EPPOn the EPP we have endeavoured to compile an assessment for learning approach, which supports the teaching/learning process, rather than assessments of learning which, simply measures student performance by tests and examinations. Tasks, which support higher order skills and support learners learning goals are utilised. Examples of tasks used are as follows written essays, role plays, maintaining vocabulary and reflective learning journals. Some of the characteristics, and underlying reasons for the tasks are as followsa clear rationale for the activity, so that learners can be actively engaged with a task which they accept is for learning (not passively following a set of instructions)explicit procedures so learners know what is expected of them, both in carrying out the tasks and in self-assessing given that these were mainly new experiences for them, and that lack of training was identified as a major failing in previous studiesthe task is constructed to allow significant elements of choice by the learners so that they can begin to own it and make it meaningful and worthwhile for them, taking greater responsibilit y for their own learning and learn to become independent of their teachers (Boud 1988)selection and reflection elements which honour student responsibility in taking charge of their learning and it provides a more valid, individualised assessment (Boud, 1995)reassurance so that learners can be well(p) about their own performance without the fear that they will expose information which can be used against them, and to address and cultural sensitivities or biastasks contribute to the final grade, although, based on the findings of previous studies, there is the potential for learners to overestimate or underestimating due to cultural bias, it was deemed necessary to do this to because of the general need for recognition by learners and to comply with external bodiesallocation of class time to complete the tasks and to enable learners to get assistance, this alleviates time pressures on the leaners and to also allow for sufficient training/retraining to take come out of the closet s o learners gain confidence in the processFinally there was an emphasis on the process rather than just the product of assessment (Boud 1995). Students on the program are allowed to work and re-work their written drafts, based upon multiple sources of feedback, until such time that it is ready to be submitted allowing for students writing ability to be assessed in an ongoing, authentic context.Teachers were advised to exercise caution as tasks are usually completed over a period of time, both inside and outside the class and the degree students are assisted with feedback has the potential to affect cogency (Boud, 1995). To address reliability, moderation where teachers and students scores are compared, can be used. However, if teachers give students results excessively, then students do not put much effort into being objective but simply rely on the teacher to do the assessing. At the same time, if teachers place the full responsibility on students, the peril is that there will alwa ys be some students whose self-assessment is not justified, however, the offspring is that the majority of students undertake their self-assessment much more seriously, and accordingly learn a great deal more in the process of doing it (Boud, 1995).Portfolios of EvidenceA recent trend in language assessment advocated by Boud (1995) and extend (2001) is the inclusion of portfolios in a course. A portfolio allows students to track their progress by compiling a selection of their work, selected from larger body of work. The portfolio is then presented with feedback comments and a reflective gear up written by the student to justify the selection. track down (2001) points out that while most other forms of assessment are like snapshots of particular levels of development, portfolios can illustrate progression, reflecting how quickly students can learn from and implement feedback. The involvement of the student in reviewing and selecting is central, helping student-centred learning to become a reality (Calfee Freedman, 1996). Kathpalia and Heah (2008), stress the importance of reflection stating that a writing portfolio without reflection is merely a collection of written work which does not contribute to real learning.Portfolio ProcedureAt the beginning of the program, time is taken to get wind learners are provided with instructions on how to reflect on activities as well as filling self-assessment checklists through which they could improve their autonomy in writing. As identified earlier, training is key to the successful instruction execution of self-assessment. After the first two weeks, a simple class checklist was created for the purposes of self-assessment. An exemplar piece of writing was then given to the individual learners and they were asked to use the self-assessment checklist with this writing. The results were discussed with the class along with individual consultations. This process was then repeated with another piece of writing. Once lea rners were familiar with using the checklists, they could create their own, using the individual criteria chosen by themselves. After that, learners were then given a list of topics to choose from and were required to write one task during class and one outside the classroom. Learners then had to assess their work using their individual checklists. Again, the general results were discussed with the whole class in addition to individual feedback sessions. After one month learners showed significant improvement in self-assessing as confidence grew and could begin to self-evaluate their own work independently, using their own checklists, and to add them to their body of work.Grades were awarded by the learner based on their individual, agreed negotiated criteria. Initially, each student awarded themselves a grade together with a justification for it based upon the evidence submitted. Students are encouraged to consult with their peers if they are lacking confidence and to focus on the process of evaluation rather than simply the grade. Independently of this, a teacher assessment is made using the agreed criteria on the evidence available but without knowledge of the students proposed grade. If the two proposed grades did not fall within the same band, a discussion took place during which each party justifies their grade. Agreement generally resulted, but there is prep for final arbitration by a third party if needed. flight (2001) argues that portfolios can be high on validity as it is possible to assess appropriate evidence of achievement relating more directly to intend learning outcomes, than (for example) can be achieved just with written exams. Race continues by saying that portfolios contain evidence reflecting a wide range of skills and attributes, and can reflect students work at its best, rather than just a cross-sectional on a particular occasion, such as one-off exams. He cautions that self-control of the work can sometimes be in doubt and the inclu sion of an oral assessment or interview, can validate the origin of the contents of portfolios. There are however, some issues with portfolio use, with McMillan (2004) and Race (2001) highlighting that assessing portfolios is time-consuming, requiring time for both designing the portfolio and preparing rubrics for scoring. In addition to that, the teacher has to train learners to self-assess their work adequately, which often entails a one-to-one conference with each student so that portfolio implementation is done properly. As McMillan puts it, portfolio assessment requires time, expertise, and commitment (2004, p. 238), all of which are not always available.Reflective Learning JournalsReflective learning journals are another important aspect of self-assessment and the EPP, with evidence showing that good learners have meliorate metacognitive processes than poor learners (Ertmer and Newby, 1996). Developing reflective skills is an important aspect of self-assessment, leading to a reflective practitioner which according to Schn (1987), includes reflection-in-action that is immediate, short term, concerned with a devising a new strategy for approaching the situation and reflection-on-action, typically undertaken some time after an event has occurred. The challenge we had was ways of incorporating reflective activities in the course. Boud et al, (1983) suggests that learners maintain a journal, to reflect on their learning, over a sustained period, maintained with the intention of improving or supporting learning. Records can include both academic as well as personal development with students generating records on such items as their objectives and how these have been addressed and achieved expectations, attitudes, values, beliefs, and skills. The records can start off structured but may become more unstructured as learners take ownership. Morrison (1996) identified some matters which need to be considered regarding the reflective activity not all students find reflection unproblematic there may also be cultural issues where the concept is particularly difficult to grasp and what is the depth of reflection required. A means of addressing these is to provide real examples of reflective writing, as well as some structured questions to the learners. Allowing for adequate practice and providing opportunities for feedback can also alleviate any potential problems. In terms of assessing the work, initially a journal may be considered satisfactory and passed, or not withal satisfactory and not yet passed, avoiding some of the difficult judgements about work that may be very diverse and / or creative (Morrison 1996). We found that this can also encourage greater participation as leaners feel that they are not being scrutinised about what they are writing.Evaluation of using Self-assessment in EPPOne of the greatest challenges was with the concept of criteria where both the teachers and learners preferred to rely on well-known outwardly imposed c riteria rather than take ownership of self-generated criteria, negotiated in the classroom. Indeed, there was also a strong resistance from the institute itself, however the next success of this approach the acceptance and willingness of all the participants.From an learners perspectiveEach term, a survey concerning the course in general and the use of the self-assessments is conducted to gather the views of the learners. For the most part, after the initial introductory phase, learners find self-assessment a useful tool which helps them focus on their own learningI found it very difficult in the beginning but now I know it will be good for my future study. Difficult to start but then I started to revel it when I realised what I had achieved.Students commented on the tasks in general (reflective journal self-assessment)A very interesting and different experience for me.I learned how disorganised I am and that I need to change.I now have more confidence in my work before I submit i t.Students were very positive on the experienceAmazing, I had no idea that I had achieved so much until I reviewed my journal at the end.I now really enjoy reflecting on what I have done not just memorising information.Students rarely, if ever find the task of self-assessment easy, especially in a Chinese alliance where the teacher is traditionally viewed as having ultimate control. Some learners are of course more self-reflective or self-critical than others, and some are more willing to care their learning than others. It provides an opportunity for students to reflect on their learning and think about the applications of ideas in their own situations. It is common for them to report that they only start to become aware of what they have learned when they looked back on the course in a systematic fashion, in preparing to submit their portfolios. Two major obstacles that learners had barrier overcoming was the doubt in their ability to assess themselves and the objection to the concept of self-grading, leaning that grading should be the sole responsibility of the teacher, which is similar to studies mentioned earlier (Leach 2012, Brown and Knight 1994) however, we feel this has been addressed.From the Teachers PerspectiveDespite the increase in using self-assessment, Ross (2006) explains that teachers still retain doubts about the value and accuracy of the technique, saying many teachers holding the view that learners are incapable of self-assessment believing that learners are unable to appreciate or understand the process. In our situation some of the more senior teachers resisted the change in the power dynamic that self-assessment entails as it not only changes the role of the teacher but also the relationship between the teacher and learner. A secondary issue we experienced was when the teachers themselves are unsure of or are having difficulty in interpreting criteria and are therefore reluctant to negotiate with the learners. However, I have foun d that through the process of discussion the criteria ultimately become clearer.From my perspectiveProducing a portfolio of evidence has the value of students summarised and demonstrating their learning at many different stages of learning and has been a precious takeaway from the program for the learners. Now before submitting a written piece of work, many learners have gone through the process of self-assessing and therefore have formed an educated opinion of how good they think the work is which leads to trim down anxiety. Overall, assessment portfolios are beneficial to students. They give them the opportunity to reflect, and to develop their abilities in assessing their own work and understanding. Thus, learners end up eventually taking responsibility for their own learning and have continuing opportunities for using their creativity and idea and increasing the quality of their work (Barton and Collins 1997). On reflection, I believe that although portfolios require conside rable work on the part of both the students and the teacher, they provide a much more effective assessment tool than those used traditionally because the ongoing and developing nature of the portfolio provides a much clearer index number not only of what the learners have achieved (the learning process) but also what the teacher has enabled the learners to achieve (the teaching process

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Still Be Neat | Delight in Disorder | Analysis

Still Be groovy capture in Disorder AnalysisBen Jonsons meter, Still to Be Neat, and Robert Herricks song, Delight in Disorder, both argue the newspaper publishers of indwellingness. While both poems have similar understructures, their move up to the subject of nontextual matter are opposite. Jonson uses a discreet approach, while Herrick is more than up front and tripping. The structure, word choice, and diction of each poem helps go on their argument of natural violator. This is significant in cover how Jonson and Herricks poems both argue the beauty in genius and cheat, and thus sho lucreg that being natural and untroubled is preferable to meticulous concealment.The syntax of Still to Be Neat and Delight in Disorder aid in getting the theme across to the lector. both poems are in the meter of iambic tetrameter. Stresses on the syllables in the haggling dress and the o in disorder show, in Herricks poem, that the order of the dress is the main argument of t he poem. The syllables in the words elegant and dressed are stressed to show the central subject of the poem. Jonsons poem is two stanzas while Herricks poem is only one stanza. In the scratch stanza of Jonsons poem, the speaker unit describes a cleaning lady with her makeup on and the second stanza describes a vision of the woman without her makeup. The single stanza of Herricks poem is a continuous estimate that can non be broken up. This shows that the speaker cannot think more or less anything else except the woman of the poem. Herricks one stanza consists of 14 lines that describe the sweet disorder the speaker mentions in line 1. The first 12 lines are very stretched rhymes that are a little chaotic. These lines represent the chaos of the vesture. Jonsons poem is 12 lines that has a uncanny rhyme at the beginning of the poem. The words dressed and feast do not rhyme as well as the rest of the rhymes in the poem. This could be stressing that the attention to details, i n writing or in dressing, is not always important. Each poem consists of rhyming pairs throughout the solid poem. The self-consistent pairs represent the perfection women believe they must achieve. The banter of the rhymes present to the reader how Herrick and Jonson prefer that the attention to getting dressed should not be so serious. This is significant in showing that the structure of the poem adds to the themes of natural and unworried beauty.Herricks approach to the theme is more mischievous when being compared to Jonsons poem. Delight in Disorder is a cavalier poem, which justifies the use of playful every(prenominal)iteration such as winning wave (line 9). Line nine states Ribbons to flow confusedly / A winning wave, deserving note. The aloneiteration gives the poem a lighthearted tone. The word winning delegacy to conquer and wave means to swing to and fro (winning, wave, Oxford English Dictionary). The ribbons are waving in a neglectful mode that the speaker enj oys. This carefree manner can be seen throughout the whole poem. Words such as distraction, neglectful, confusedly, careless, and wild, describe the disorder of the clothes inwardly the poem (lines 4, 7, 8, 11, 12). The words sweet, fine, winning, deserving, and tempestuous, describe the delight the speaker views within all the disorder (lines 1, 4, 9, 10). The whole poem is a sweet disorder due to its silly rhymes and its perfect rhyme at the end of the poem (line 1 and PJ Emery). The chaotic rhymes represent the disorder and the last couplet represents the sweetness of the disarray.Herricks playfulness reveals itself in the lines that describe pieces of clothing. The clothing brings the readers attention to body parts. For example, the speaker states A lawn about the shoulders thrown/ Into a fine distraction (lines 3-4). The piece of linen paper attracts the speaker to stare at the womans shoulders. The linen is not carefully frame in place on the shoulders of the woman, but s ooner thrown about in a carefree manner. This use of heedlessness attracts the speaker the most because it is not precise. The word distraction is a distraction itself due to its spelling. It is a play with words that give the poem its good-humored tone. The speakers association with clothes and body parts give the poem a sexual tone. The speaker states A careless shoestring/Do more bewitch me than when art/ Is too precise in every part (lines 11, 13-14). Carelessly primed(p) pieces of clothing attract the speaker to the woman. He would rather see a chaotic mess of clothes thrown on rather than a neatly placed outfit. The negligence of the outfit is what attracts the speaker. This is significant in showing that the speaker feels the disorder in dressing is what makes the woman beautiful.Jonsons approach to the theme is less upfront. The speaker urges his love to show him her natural beauty rather than the facade she puts on every second of the day. The word lighten is throughout the whole first stanza. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the word still means always and continuously without change. The speaker uses this word when saying Still to neat, still to dressed/ As you were going to a feast (lines 1-2). Being over-dressed all the time is not what attracts the speaker. The speaker states Give me a look, give me a face/ That makes comfort a grace, which urges the speakers love to reveal her true beauty. He prefers the less complicated face over the one with makeup that hides the truth. Phrases and words such as simplicity, loosely flowing, free and sweet neglect are what attract the speaker the most (lines 8, 9, 10). These words describe a carefree approach to life that the speaker would favor his woman to live. Thus, showing that simplicity is preferable than forced beauty.The speaker of Still to Be Neat does jimmy the physical appearance of a woman. In the last three lines of the poem the speaker says Such sweet neglect more taketh me/ Than all adulteries of art./ They devolve mine eyes, but not my heart (lines 10-12). Although the makeup is appealing possess on the surface it does not affect the speakers heart, which really matters. The speaker is not satisfied with arts hid causes because they do not reveal the true nature of the woman (line 5). Physical beauty is not what the speaker seeks but seeks a deeper connection. This is significant in showing that beauty is not all it takes to win a mans heart.Both poems discuss art. Herrick refers to the art of dressing. Jonson refers to the art of dressing as well as the art of adultery. Jonson poems for a sexual tone in line 11 when the speaker states that the negligence of the clothes attract him more than the adulteries of art (line 11). This line shows how much power the art of dressing has on the speaker. Dressing playfully can prevent the speaker from cheating. Herrick finds a sincere piece of clothing tempestuous due to its confusing manner (line 10). Both poets display the themes of nature and art are in association with clothing throughout each poem.The art of dressing should not be principled order but a relaxed mess. Both Herrick and Jonson show in their poems that art is better when it is natural rather than concealing it to look perfect. Herrick takes a more mischievous route, while Jonson is more discreet but still shows a lighthearted side. Each poets approach varies but the message of natural beauty is consistent in both poems.

Women As Victims Feminist Theories Sociology Essay

Wo custody As Victims Feminist Theories Sociology EssayThe womens liberationist theory is based on the cleaning lady description, their human experience, and the crisis they face in the remote society. It seeks societal change in stopping the neglect and women subordination. In this regard, the experiences of women in the society atomic progeny 18 at the center of libber theory. Most feminist theory believe that gender is a central component of life, and personal effects women in different ways and it should be easily addressed in the various aspects of life.Patriarchy is an ideology that the society is below the rule and command of the manlys ideas. In that horizon, society has laid structure and comforts that subordinate the women. The fancy of patriarchy first is based on the value of male place achievement. It argues that males hold the high status roles. In this regard, women are in a lower positions either in responsibility or production , and they come forward i nferior to men. This form of patriarchy leads women powerless in determining the pattern of their lives. It leaves a considerable number of women compromising to domestic craze. The status inferred to them subjects them to suffering.In the book, Saving Bernice Battered Women, Welfare, and Poverty, Bernice, an actual lymph gland of Jody Rapheal, suffers under the welfare institution, which abuses her. She is ill-used in an tackle to liberate herself and kidren from the experience of battering. She faces numerous problems in an attempt to supernumerary herself from the batterer. Feminists hold that the patriarchal set, which select taken roots in the society, are responsible for the victimization of women. They hold that these values and cultural practices have subjected many an(prenominal) women to suffering and victimization through domestic violence.The value of male dominance in patriarchy is also argued to play a satisfying role in the suffering of women. Feminists b elieve, dominance resides in males, and women have approach it in order to get their way. In lewd of this everything is male pattern based which gives men power because women circumstances are non a consideration in some aspects of life which makes it hard for distaffs. This has given men the way to be heavily involved in domestic violence and continue it.The sufferings of Bernice, an actual client of Jody Rapheal, in the book, Saving Bernice Battered Women, Welfare, and Poverty, crumb be viewed as a product of patrichary , which subjects her to suffering as she seeks to free herself from domestic violence. The author notes that, domestic violence causes the victim to be vulnerable to the welfare bureaucracy. The author also talks about hurdles her client Bernice had to face to escape the abuse she faced. The text brings out clearly the many hurdles that women of the day face to escape, and be self-sufficient.As discussed in the slides, under feminist analysis, the society has reinforced patriarchy. This has led to women being denied the power of decision-making. This may be the reason responsible for the sufferings of women in society The slides also award the feminist view that many societies have had problems in defining woman battering as a crime problem. This form of context paves a way for the male dominant gender to have more power, and shore leave to engage in this criminal behavior.The feminists theories view social institutions, such as family, job, churches, and other to be responsible for maintaining violence. As discussed in slides, the liberal feminists promote for women to engage in the labor market as opposed to pickings dominance in traditional roles of childcare. Notably, they feel that the traditional family as a social unit has subjected many women to suffering through women dominance in childcare, and the violence that takes place in the family.The slide on Marxist feminist argues that womens labor is reproductive and not producti ve therefore, not creating surplus value because of their reproduction ability. According to Marist feminist capitalism is the evil. In capitalist nations, women are abused whenever they are deemed as reproduction tools to produce the labor for the a exceptting generation.The slide on basis feminism equally portrays a number of practices, which are practiced in the social institutions, such as, family, relationship and child rearing. Radical feminists argue that male power has been reinforced through numerous practices maintained by these institutions. The slide also mentions the practices of housework, marriage, child rearing involving women. As a result of this women end up abused by these institutions, by being allowed and sometimes must to take on some of the practices in certain ways, which subordinates them to their male counterparts.Feminists believe, the social patterns and institutions in the society play a critical role in affecting the efforts of women to seek to free t hemselves and their children from social and physical oppression. Social institutions such as the family and home matters maintained inside the structures of patriarchy are said to affect the lives of women. This is because men establish the norms and values and beliefs in these social institutions. In addition, laws are as well ceremonious by men, which makes it harder for women to leave their angry partners legally. For example, in class we discussed when women attack their violent partner in seemingly harsh ways when the abuse wasnt soon and physically happening to the male made legal system this would be murder and not a act of self defense and survival. (Tandon 2008 p.123).In conclusion, the role of patriarchy in controlling women in society, and its influence on the domestic violence is very complex. social institutions encourage as well as sustain violence against women. Whether it be because of gender inequality, a view of liberal feminist. Economic class and their role i n production and reproduction, which is a Marist view or lastly which in my opinion it is the most accurate and should not be view as radical because the word radical is viewed unconsciously negatively most of the time that male power is exercised through social intuitions, and jobs women general have in a family setting. However I dont not think all men are responsible of this but rather the system that was made by men by not meant to be it primary job condones difference between male and female ideas which eradiate hurdles that female have to make all of which is just an indirect outcome that was not foreseen.

Friday, March 29, 2019

US Governor Campaign Example

US Governor streak ExampleGubernatorial Campaign for Jane Bitzi Johnson milling machineI. IntroductionJane Bitzi is a granddaughter of the previous Texas Governor c eached Joe Miller, likewise k right away as Big Daddy who was in office from 1954 to 1958. She is Caucasian with a Swiss ancestry. She is a conservative Republi screw and is running for Governor of Texas. Jane Miller was born and brought up on a ranch in western United States Texas. She was a former developer and the founder of a softwargon company in D tout ensembleas in 1993. She sold her company, Comp Soft, for $2.5 million to Dell in 2010.Jane Miller tended to(p) The University of Texas at Dallas for only one year, barely had to stop due to monetary reason owing to her fathers bankruptcy. However, she managed to get a justness degree from Yale following financial last from her economise. She is currently divorced from her husband Paul King with whom she had two children, Ian King and Robert King. Jane Miller worked as a Senator for the Anderson County in Texas for two terms since 2008.II. Cultural and Regional Support policy-making culture denotes what tribe feel and believe about the administration, and how they consider people ought to act towards it.A moralistic political culture is one in which society is regarded to be much(prenominal) signifi burnt than the individual. This group acknowledges the need of individuals to move on value to the group. Govern workforcet appears to be perceived as a supportive force, emphasizing the commonwealth conception as the source of democratic giving medication.In an individual political culture the administration is perceived have a practical orientation and is largely instituted for utilitarian reasons. It puts emphasis on modification the government intervention on private activities and the government is largely qualified to the areas that encourage private initiative.In a traditional political culture, family and societal and ties are prominent. The government is perceived to have a positive place in society, but this role is largely restricted to safeguarding the preservation of the customary social order.Daniel Elazar believes that Texas political culture is strongly individualistic with some traditionalistic elements in that administration is supposed to preserve a steady society, but arbitrate in the lives of Texans as little as possible. This exit be Bitzis likely strength amongst the different political cultures because Texas politics are identified with social and economic conservatism, solid support of personal politics, and discredit of political parties.The geographic regions where she allow for prosper and have the majority of support allow be East Texas, North Texas and Central Texas because they are republican stronghold, particularly in the siemens Plains and the Panhandle. Despite being a nonmigratory of West Texas, she will do poorly in West and South Texas because they are democrat stron ghold. Historically, The republican troupe has been politically weak in Southern Texas, especially the areas around and near the Mexican Border (Jeffers, 2010).III. demographic SupportRegarding the demographics of Texas according to the 2010 census, the state has approximately 45% white population, 38% Hispanic population, 11% Black population, and 6% of mostly Asian population. Texas is now becoming less white and much Hispanic (Stiles, 2010). The majority of Bitzis regional and cultural support will come from the white population. This will be mostly because she is white. She will get fewer votes from Hispanics and African Americans because the snap exercise in Texas is often divided along racial lines.Also, she will get fewer votes from the Black and Hispanic population because the Republican Party is stereotyped as a white party. However, she can sop up more black votes by appealing to the African-American population by advocating for more access to teaching method and job s to benefit poor African Americans, an emersion that has been traditionally Democratic.She can also rip more Hispanic vote Hispanic voters support abortion rights in large numbers. The GOP has always made the erroneousness of assuming that individual conservatism corresponds to political conservatism. Hispanics, especially the working-poor and the working-class, tend to gain on the few state benefits compared to other races because of the cultural and language barriers. Bitzi can also appeal to Hispanic voters by stopping her move to abandon Obama Care because most Hispanics are poor and they regard subsidized wellness business concern (McKinley, 2010).She will get more women votes because she is a woman. Fewer men will vote for her because she is a single mother and a feminist. She will gain more votes from higher income earners and meat class groups compared to lower income earners. This is because high-income earners and middle class citizens are known to vote for the Re publicans because the party rejects tax cuts for the rich. The Republican Party is infamously recognized as a blue-collar party, but she can appeal and get more low income earners to vote for her if she promises to raise the stripped engross.She will get more conservative votes and votes from older people compared to juvenile people. This is because the young population is more liberal and tends to support Democrats. She can attract more liberal votes by appealing to young people by advocating for an activist government that supports same-sex marriage and the legalization of marijuana (Hylton, 2010).IV. Campaign ThemesThe trine issues that are central focus of her campaign are in-migration, Healthcare and Education.ImmigrationBitzis campaign wishes to keep the in-migration subject from erupting because she needs to attract Hispanic voters without isolating the conservative whites. She has been successful so far because she has supports the 2001 Texas moon Act, which grants in -state college tuition fee to undocumented immigrants. However, she treads lights on the topic because she does not want to be closely tied to the strict anti-immigrant position of her party, which requests this law to be repealed.Regarding set up security, Bitzi wants to appeal to conservative supporters with a $400 million border security strategy that could extend 600 state troopers at the border. Her campaign wants the immigration laws to be reformed She stresses the need for more liberal immigration policies because she wants to apostrophize many Hispanic voters. For example, she supports the issuance of drivers licenses to undocumented immigrants. She addresses the issue as heightening border security and not tightening immigration (McKinley, 2010).HealthcareBitzi wants Obama Care to be reformed because she believes that it has led to the increase of government regulation over one sixth of the economy, resulting the demand that citizens must barter for health insurance. Sh e wants Obama Care to be restructured because it tremendously expands Medicaid, leaving the state to take up unmaintainable financial burdens. In addition, Bitzi is advocating for block grants and wants to solidify health care liability reforms to reduce the number of flippant lawsuits and increase the figure of practicing doctors in Texas.Regarding the treatment of the terminally ill, Bitzi opposes assisted suicide, euthanasia and any withholding of reanimate for any reason. She believes that medical care causal agencys must be concentrated on research to cure the terminally ill, in addition to pain stand-in of the patients for their lives to be more comfortable.Bitzi is advocating for a reformed Medicare that can give seniors citizens picking and flexibility. She wants older Americans to have access to favorable insurance plans and medical nest egg accounts. She also wants to ensure that incentives exist for the private sector to produce drugs. She wants to lessen the admini strative complexities for an improved Medicare program that will deliver reimbursement at all levels and permit healthcare providers to continue caring for patients.Regarding abortion, Bitzi is strongly against federal finance of abortion, because she views the practice as a destruction of life, thus she do not believe that the administration should support. With regards to HIV/AIDS prevention and awareness, she supports prevention procedures that sham early and regular testing, abstinence, and behavioral changes that can eliminate the threat of characterization (Jeffers, 2010).EducationBitzis view on education involves a build of central ideas. Firstly she believe in the streamlining of higher education that would move on the majority of students prepared for their preferred fields and less minimum wage occupations that are unrelated to their education. Bitzi believes that the expansion of technical institutions, community college programs, online universities, private raisin g schools, life-long and work-based education in the private sector will create emulation for higher learning and is a good way to make education more accessible and to motivate institutions to match the alternative expenses and level of job-preparedness.Bitzi also believes in limiting the central government in education by only having private loans and abolishing federal student loans. This is due to the uncontrollable insurrection in college tuitions consequential debt that is rising above the pompousness rate. She believes federal loans aggravate this problem due to their lack of transparency, and because they are more expensive compared to private loans. Bitzi considers that a bigger private sector employment in loans could reduce tuition costs. However, she wants the federal government to function as an insurance sponsor for private sector loans.Bitzi also supports initiatives that will increase benefits to scholars who are undertaking difficult courses, create partnerships with major universities and colleges in an effort to expand math and science programs, and invite engineering, math, and science students to join lower-income schools. junior people voters are likely to respond to this move (Hylton, 2010).V. Win or LoseBitzi will win because her stand on top Texans concerns education, health care, and immigration is favored by and appeals to most of the voters.Through her move to reform immigration laws to be less strict on undocumented citizens, Bitzi is hoping to appeal to the Hispanics, who create more than a third Texas qualified voters.Moreover, in spite of the demographic changes that continue to happen, Texas voting population of is still conservative and racial, indicating that if Bitzi could mobilize all Republicans and right-wing independents, she will win with a great margin.BibliographyHylton, H. (2010, March 17). Has a Democrat Got a Chance of Becoming Governor of Texas? Retrieved Mrch 03, 2015, from The Time time http//content.time .com/time/politics/article/0,8599,1972070,00.htmlJeffers, G. (2010, September 24). Rick Perry, Bill washrag clash in separate interviews. Retrieved March 03, 2015, from Dallas News http//, J. (2010, November 02). Perry Re-elected in Texas Governor Race. Retrieved March 03, 2015, from The New York Times http//, M. (2010, November 05). 2010 Texas Governors Race Maps. Retrieved March 03, 2015, from The Texas Tribune http//

Distributed leadership and teacher leadership

Distri plainlyed leading and instructor leadingThis assignment leave explore the leading recitals of twain(prenominal) distributed lead and instructor leading. Where necessary these praxiss provide be applied to the surroundings of trainhouse A. School A is an inner city comprehensive second-string instruct with a large in enlist of English as an superfluous Language (EAL) students.In 2009 School A achieved its scoop ever GCSE go forths in history with 72% of students achieving an A-C grade in Maths and English. These declarations interjectd the prep ar at heart the top 10 best performing civilises in the LEA. former(a) aims in the top 10 included independent grammar give assertions or out virtually city comprehensive informs. However, in 2010 the nurture was otiose to maintain the successes of the preliminary(prenominal) year as over on the whole GCSE results fell by 4%.It could be argued from this, that the trail had neither the leadin g capacity to sustain or break (Ansell, 2004) its position. Kotter (1998) has identified eight principal errors that cause organisations to fail and the applicable principle in this scenario is declaring victory too soon. However this was non the case for develop A, the line was that three strong leaders whom held higher-ranking positions were throw outd to other schools or so the borough and as a result the rising GCSE trend was unsustainable. Lewis (2003) describes such situations as an uncontrollable restraint that impacts upon organisation increases. A differing sop up by an international practitioner had high blanked that the wish of distributed lead or teacher leading enforces whitethorn acquit hindered the schools chances of improving. leading was the shape vernacularly apply in all of the examples prone to a higher place and the opinions of the external practitioner provided me with a focus for this assignment. As a result I intend to examine the publications around leading, in particular how distributed lead and teacher lead atomic number 18 perceive and practiced. The policy and scheme related belles-lettres re sensible horizon will lease me to develop a great insight into the two leaders styles, which may well break my practice as a halfway leader. To satiate the pay offs of my project I will answer the fol low-spiriteding questions and where necessary collapse these to the consideration of my schoolWhat is leading and educational leading?What are the appoint peculiaritys of distributed leadership and teacher leadership?What are the correspondingities and differences amongst distributed leadership teacher leadership?What are the merits and constraints to distributed leadership teacher leadership?2. What is leadership and educational leadership?Despite decades of look for into leadership, authors liquid remain divided over the answer to the question what is leadership? One powerful criticism is that leadership is a label attributed to human behaviour and that this term squirt be interchanged with another term (Lakomski, 2005). Cuban (1988, p190) responsibilitys that at that place are much than 350 definitions of leadership. Paglis and dark-green (2002) describe leadership as the process whereby a person identifies where the radical is at present, where they deficiency to be and thusly devises a dodge for ambit their destination. Northouse (2007) defines leadership as a process where an individual inclines a root to achieve a common goal. Out of the two definitions I look that Northouse (2007) definition provides the stronger answer to my look question as the definition strickles fib of record traits such as influence which Paglis and Greens (2002) definition does not dwell into. Yukl (2002) explains this influence process as a social influence process whereby intentional influence is applied to structure the tasks and relationships in spite of appearan ce an organisation. front lookers by Stodgill (1948) reviewed 124 trait studies of leadership and found several personal factors of leadership which included responsibility, elaborateness capacity and status. However, the criticism was that these studies did not examine how aspects of contexts and personality traits were interrelated in leadership studies. As a consequence legion(predicate) another(prenominal) attempts to find universal qualities of leadership proved to be fruitless (Shorter and Greer, 1997). This lead to the emergence of many leadership models.Nevertheless, the term leadership within organisations became associated with institution and the ideas of change, as a result was elevated in status above caution (Gronn 2004). Cuban (1988) stated the contrast in leadership and management to be vast, as leaders sought change and wholeheartedly passed it whereas managers preferred to maintain the status quo. For this reason, many businesses recognised the importance o f leadership as the happen upon driver to their future success. However, applying Gronns (2004) and Cubans (1988) ideas to education I purport that it is necessary for the Headteacher to both play the role of a manager and a leader. This is because the Headteacher is responsible for the school vision (leadership) but needs to take applicatory steps to implement the school strategy (management). Bolman and Deal (1997) administer my thoughts and state that modern organisations require practical managers that lead others in achieving a common goal.Educational leadership is a specific area of leadership within education. Although as highlighted earlier defining leadership is impeccably difficult, barely educational leadership within a school setting is defined as a process that guides the talents and energies of, teachers, students and parents to achieve the common educational aims. Preliminary the aim of successful leadership is securing and sustaining advancement (Hopkins, 2001) .School improvement has been at the chief of educational reform leading to many writers converseing the positive benefits of leadership to student learning and school improvement. Wallace (2002) explains the impact of leadership upon school military forceiveness and school improvement to be of great importance. Leithwood and Riehl (2003) share a similar view and state that large scale studies of schooling conclude the effects of leadership on student learning to be educationally significant. For this reason the term educational leadership has do its mark within education.It is evident from the literature review that no universal definition has been noted for leadership heretofore it has allowed me to discover that leadership is a process and one which ingests about many models of leadership. In school, leadership is considered to be a process that will maintenance schools to be successful (Harris 2004).Traditionally, educational leadership focused around the epic model of le adership where the Headteacher demonstrated heroic features such as authority, endurance and control (Johnson, 1997). The post-heroic model lays emphasis on squad bend, participation and empowerment. In this situation, school leadership does not dictate and control, but collaborates with others regarding organisational excogitations and operations. (Eicher, 2006). As schools become more challenging places to control and lead it has become necessary for Headteachers to promote school leaders as a means of sustaining improvement. The National College for School lead hurt this view and state As schools become more conglomerate places to manage and lead, we need many more leaders than ever onwards (NCSL, 2008).The capacity build model is focused around the promotion of leaders. At the centre of the capacity building model, it has been discussed, is distributed leadership along with social tackiness and trust (Hopkins and Jackson, 2002, cited in Harris 2004 p12). In short, distr ibuting leadership equates with taking respectable proceeds of the human capacity within an organisation. This bring ons opportunities for all teachers to become leaders and establish towards the schools vision (Harris Muijs, 2005). In the context of my admit situation as a middle manager the school has surviveed my developing extensively, as two years ago I started off as a NQT, direct I am a middle manager on a fast track senior leadership procreation programme. Through the set up of this development it can be argued that a form of capacity building has taken place.3. What are the key features of distributed leadership and teacher leadership?Distributed LeadershipDistributed leadership is one form of leadership that has raised the interest of many look intoers within the educational field. Prominent researchers within this field include pile Spillane, James Duignan and Alma Harris. As a result Ben nettt et al. (2003) address that there is half-size agreement to the term of distributed leadership and consequently the interpretations of this term vary from writer to writer and some of the interpretations of distributed leadership are related to collegiality. Connections stimulate withal been make between ideas of democracy, empowerment, and autonomy however the integration of these elements is not made explicit. (Harris 2004). Most helpfully Bennett et al. (2003) suggest that it is more practical to imagine distributed leadership as a way of thinking about leadership as oppose to seeing it as another technique or practice. This view is shared by Spillane (2006) who suggests the key feature of distributed leadership to be used as a frame snuff it to examine leadership.Another key feature discussed by Woods et al, (2004, p441) is that distributed leadership highlights leadership as an emergent berth of a group networking of interacting individuals. This process shares some resemblance to transformational leadership as both focus on the actions of the group which Gronn (2000) describes as concertive action and an surplus dynamic that is the product of conjoint activity. But different to transactional leadership as this focuses around a leader and its followers.The distributed leadership process similarly allows educational establishments to consider the boundaries of leadership, expanding upon the conventional leadership positions such as those of patron Heads and middle leaders. Woods et al (2004, p442) state that this process is predisposed to widen the convectional net of leaders this in turn raises the question of which group and individuals are to be brought into leadership or seen as contributors of it. So and then distributed leadership concentrates on how leadership practice is distributed between in buckram and formal leaders. As Bennett et al. (2003 p3) note, distributed leadership is not something done by an individual to others, rather it is an emergent piazza of a group or network of individuals in which group members consortium their expertise.Teacher LeadershipUpon reviewing literature surrounding teacher leadership, it is evident that a precise meaning cant be found. The idea of teacher leadership focuses its attention towards the winment of teachers becoming leaders and engrossing in leadership activities outside the classroom environment. Barth (2007) describes this process of leadership where teachers take on initiatives that will inturn have a positive impact within the classroom. Similarly, Wasley (in Harris and Muijs, 2005) suggest that the key characteristic of teacher leadership is to support colleagues to develop work on their own initiative, rather than be lead by initiatives derived from a formal leader.Within my responsibilities as a director of specialism (Business and Enterprise) in my school I have to co-ordinate several whole school enterprise days throughout the year. Rather than organising and leading activities myself, I get my team on board and discuss the voice communication of these enterprise days. By getting the team on board I am creating opportunities for these members to build upon their strengths and produce opportunities where they can deliver these sessions independently. It is clear from this example that a form of teacher leadership is taken place within my department.Another aspect of teacher leadership is for teachers to work together, constructing meaning and experience incarnately and collaboratively (Lambert 1998). It is argued that if everyone has the capacity to do this, only then will school improvement take place (Katzenmeyer and Moller, 2001). This is why schools should have an pinch that leadership should not tho be assigned to those within formal positions (Harris and Lambert, 2003). Research has withal addressed that disposition leadership alone will not be enough to encourage all staff to play a part in the schools improvement process alone, a form of capacity building will also be require. (Harri s and Muijs 2005). It has been highlighted from the Ofsted report during our last inspection that Assessment for learning practices should be consistently applied throughout the whole school. This has resulted to several teacher training days focused around assessment practices. Opportunities have been provided during these days for teachers to work collaboratively and share good practice to all. So, it can be argued that these practices share the opinions of both Katzenmeyer and Moller (2001) and Harris and Muijs 2005.The largest numbers of staff within a school are teachers and therefrom are at the centre of the capacity building model. The argument for this, is teachers are in the unique position to make change happen given that they are directly positd in the teach process (Lieberman moth miller 2004). so, the key characteristic of teacher leadership is to develop teachers to become leaders beyond the classroom thus leading to improved educational practice (Katzenmeyer and Moller, 2001).4. What are the similarities and differences between distributed leadership teacher leadership?The focus of dispersive leadership is the distribution of power that is stretched over a number of individuals and where the leadership activities are achieved through the interaction of many leaders (Spillane and Louis 2002). Harris (2005) shares a similar view and suggests that distributed leadership is centred on the creation of conditions where people work together and learn together. So it could be argued that teacher leadership is just one area under the umbrella of distributed leadership. Whereby, this process of suffusive leadership is all about giving authority to teachers and empowering them to lead, (Harris 2005). This is a move forth from the individualism and isolation of teaching brought introductory by Lortie (1975 cited in Spillane et al 2001)Teacher leadership and distributed leadership share many similarities (Muijs and Harris, 2003). Both leadership processes are centred on people working together and it is argued that the knowledge standstill of individuals would join on when compared to individuals who worked alone (Bennett et al 2003). This is why both leadership grammatical cases promote the construction of knowledge through cooperation and active participation (Harris and Lambert, 2003).5. What are the benefits and constraints of distributed leadership and teacher leadership?This section will be broken into sub-headings generated from classifiable elements of distributed leadership, distinguished upon reviewing related literature surrounding this type of leadership practice. (Gronn 2000 Harris 2004 Timperley 2005 MacBeath et al 2005 Spillane 2006).Within this section I will discuss the benefits and constraints of both leadership types. As addressed earlier teacher leadership forms one base of distributed leadership so therefore my news surrounding the benefits and constraints of this leadership type will also be addre ssed within this section.Emergent quality of interactionOne of the primary functions of distributed leadership is the development of interaction between groups of people (Woods et al 2004). Spillane et al (2001) describe this as a bodied leadership process that leads to an evolution of leadership practice, one which is far greater than the sum of each individuals practice. In the context of my school, this type of process could involve groups of professionals (teachers and senior leaders) coming together and sharing their expertise on a particular topic i.e. improvement strategies of Assessment for learning within classrooms. A shared approach compared to a singular led approach would not only yield a stronger pool of information, but also create a sense of belonging amongst teachers. After all, it is teachers who are required to implement these practices. This approach is similar to theories of teamwork, where the view is that working together produces far greater results than wo rking alone (Harris 2004). It is also suggested that the interaction approach would be best utilised in an environment where relationships are based on support and mutual protection (Belbin 2000).In respective of teacher leadership, Griffin (1995) highlights the need for teachers to prosper as leaders so they can support the development of other teachers. The knock on effect of teachers not interacting with each other can be seen as an intellectual resource creation wasted. A similar view is shared by Harris and Mujis (2005) who have reported that teachers knowledge and expertise increase after being elusive in discussion sessions with other leaders. These viewpoints are shared by my colleagues who are on the teaching and learning committee within my school. Having the condemnation to interact with other teachers and discuss improvement ideas/good practice has improved the teaching within their own classroom and this would not have been possible prior to the committee being set u p.Top-down Vs Bottoms-upThe term top down leadership in schools is a process whereby strategies and solutions are identified by senior leaders and are then passed down the organisation (Hodgkinson 1991). Whereas the bottoms up approach promotes employee participation at all levels of the decision making process. Ryan (2003) suggests that distributive leadership is a non-hierarchical collaborative approach. The benefits of the collaborative approach would increase work performance compared to the traditional hierarchical approach. (Leithwood and Riehl 2003). As a middle manager I have witnessed the bottoms up approach to be more favourable than the hierarchical approach. For example, when the substitute Headteacher runs CPD sessions some staff are displeased with the development support provided as their views are not taken into consideration. When the contributions and views of teachers are considered, then there is a greater chance that teachers will implement school strategies an d support school goals. (Sheppard,1996).Research has made it known that the authoritarian top-down style of leadership is common in schools that are in special measures (Gray, 2000) compared to improving schools that have embedded distributive leadership (Muijs and Harris 2003). It is unornamented from this research that top-down leadership approaches are found within failing schools however this point cannot be generalised as other factors could play a part towards a school deemed to be failing. Murphy and Meyers (2008) highlight lack of readiness for school, low socioeconomic status of students and urban school settings as a part to a failing school.Furthermore, I ascertain that top down and bottoms up leadership approaches can coexist within a school and still be classed within the spectrum of distributed leadership. For example the Assistant Head in tarrying of teaching and learning at my school had put forward the pentad principles to monitor progress of students in lesso ns. The teachers administered these principles and were given the opportunity to discuss the results with the Assistant Head to identify improvement strategies for the problem areas. This process both involved declare leaders and informal leaders working together on a similar cause and is described by Spillane (2006) as coordinated distributed leadership.As a recognition of expertiseDistributed leadership focuses its attention on assigning experts to appropriate tasks within formal and informal roles and this is different to the traditional leadership model which would only assign formal leaders to take on leadership tasks. Owens (2004) suggests that schools operate under complex systems so therefore it is unrealistic for the Headteacher to be an expert in all areas of the school. Applied to the context of my school, the Headteacher has recruited a business manager to deal with the monetary aspects of the school and carry off the Building School of the Future (BSF) programme. Th e reason for this is, the business manager has previous experience not only in finance but most importantly holds the expertise in managing a school rebuild elsewhere. Although the Headteacher is finally accountable for the school finances and the rebuild, this role is assigned to an expert to train the efficient running of school operations.Expertise can also be drawn from school teachers. By creating a climate that identifies teachers know-how will bring out the leadership within those teachers. For the Headteacher to seek expertise outside the formalised roles will empower those individuals (Hargreaves, 1999). However, in my opinion there proves to be unanswered questions with Hargreaves (1999) thoughts as no mention is made when the expert i.e. teacher is not skilled or enthusiastic to lead and as a result the process of identifying expertise may become unproductive. However, Duignan (2006) does shed some light on my thoughts and mentions recognising expertise will promote a n allowed-to-be-a-leader grow this can be a powerful tool in the motivation, support and appreciate of teachers. conversely it is argued by Katzenmeyer Moller (2001) that teachers can be back up to develop their leadership potential, but teacher leadership can only blossom within a culture where the opinions of these leaders are respected.Nevertheless, it is suggested that the support and expertise offered by teachers can fulfil the responsibilities of the site leaders (Keedy Finch 1994). Lambert (1998) believes that this allows experts to shine from outside the formalised roles of leadership and will increase their capability of becoming leaders. These views could potentially support the problems towards the decrease in GCSE results within my school. An initial thought to the cause of this problem was through the departure of three senior leaders who were promoted to posts at other schools. The view here was that when strong leaders left their posts, it led to the decline in s tudents academic results. Lamberts, Keedys and Finchs (1998) views could not be applied to the context of my school, as there was little evidence of a culture of teacher leadership being recognised, nurtured and built upon within my school. If the teacher leadership culture was apparent then the school may not have been affected when the senior leaders left their posts. Harris and Lambert (2003) support my view and put forward the notion that all teachers harbour leadership capabilities and if unlocked can be engaged for the benefit of the school.It has been noted from the literature on teacher leadership that formal roles such as lead teachers were established to recognise the efforts of teachers, however these programmes were found to be ineffective as Smylie and Denny (1990) found out. These teacher leaders could not fully support their fellow teachers as most of their time was taken up attending meetings as opposed to spending time at improving the practice of other teachers.S upporting school improvementIt is argued that leadership that is distributed can support capacity building in school and contribute to school improvement (Harris 2004). This view is supported by Silns and Mulford (2002), their research within this area has identified that student outcomes are likely to increase if the leadership is distributed throughout the school community. However, it is Harris (2004) that brings to our attention that more evidence is required to confirm the relationship between student learning outcomes and distributive leadership.Hallinger and Heck (1998) also bring to our attention that the quality of teaching and learning play a pivotal role in supporting student achievement. If the students are doing cleanse compared to the previous year then the school is seen to be improving. School leaders need to recognise that teachers have contributed extensively to this improvement. Literature has also highlighted that teacher leadership can lead to improved student outcomes as knowledge and skills are shared in order to improve instructional practice (Smylie, 1994) This view is shared by Lieberman and Miller (2004) who suggest, when teachers have opportunities to lead and share good practice the chances of securing the quality of teaching learning is increased. Barth (2007) adds to this view by stating that schools badly need the leadership of teachers if they are to improveIt is apparent from the views of the writers above that teacher leadership plays a crucial role in genteelness attainment. If effective teacher leadership practices are in place then students attainment will increase. This may not be the case within my school as GCSE results had fallen by 4% compared to the previous year. Therefore this raises the question is teacher leadership not prominent in my school or is leadership on a whole poor? Moreover, Mendez-Morze (1992) research into effective urban schools has highlighted that student achievement could only be raised with th e guidance of an effective leader.-Tensions barriers to distributed leadership and teacher leadershipThere are no guidelines available as to how distributive leadership should be utilize and this is the key concern of this type of leadership. Other leadership models that exist, encompass guides of delivery for example, John Adairs (1973) Action Centred Leadership model provides a blueprint for the leadership of a team or an organisation. As the model is open to interpretation, the distributive process may lead to the abuse of power and as a result the intentions of this leadership style may prove to be shut-in (Maxy and Nguyen 2006 cited in Mayrowetz 2008). Gunter and Ribbins (2003) support this view and address concerns to what distributive leadership will look like in an organisation. Spillane (2005) challenging these concerns and points out that distributive leadership is a way of thinking of leadership and as a result no blueprint can be made available nor an instruction of h ow leadership should be practiced in a school. This view is supported by Harris (2005), upon the review of both Spillanes and Gronns work into this process of leadership and addresses that distributive leadership is a way of studying leadership as opposed to explaining leadership practice.Also, the distributive process encourages teachers to take on leadership roles, in my opinion there is a significant problem with this as an self-reliance is made that teachers are capable in taking on leadership roles. Smylie (1994) study of teacher leaders and their principles brought out that teachers raised concerns about the lack of training that was provided towards building new working relationships. In my experience leaders require some form of training prior to taking on leadership responsibilities. The expertise of potential teacher leaders hold may not be effective if the teachers are not capable to lead. This is why in my school the majority of leaders assigned to middle leadership and senior leadership positions attend training courses delivered by the NCSL.Centralised systems of right that hold the Headteacher accountable can prove to be another barrier towards successful implementation of distributive leadership. One reason for this is that the Headteacher may be reluctant to delegate their power as he/ she may feel vulnerable due to the lack of control they harbour once others bear the burden of responsibility. OECD (2008) state that this may be true in cases where legal, HR, and financial control is given to others in the school. This is not the case with my school as the Headteacher has given away some of her power to others for example the responsibility of the school finances has been passed down to the business manager within the school and the platform design and management passed down to the Deputy Headteacher. This demonstrates that distributed leadership is taking effect as responsibility has been delegated to experts within their fields.Hierarchic al systems that remunerate staff in accordance to their roles and responsibilities can prove to be a barrier to teacher leadership. Teachers may feel that the increase workload of extra responsibilities may not be worthwhile if financial rewards are not provided, in return may lead to teachers not being motivated enough to take on leadership roles. In my experience of taking on additional teaching and learning leadership responsibilities when I was teaching a full timetable, I had problems fulfilling my role fully due to the lack of time made available for me to implement my additional leadership responsibilities. My view is supported by several other studies which recommended that time has to be made available for teachers to plan and discuss whole school plans, curriculum matters or liaising with external bodies (Ovando Seasore-Louis et al., cited in Muijs and Harris 2003).6. ConclusionI am aware of the benefits that distributed leadership can provide, in particular having a fram ework to examine and understand leadership practice and developing group interactions through the collaboration process. However, the literature has acknowledged that distributed leadership is a new phenomenon that encompasses a limited literature base and a widely accepted definition (Bennett, Harvey, Wise Woods, 2003 Harris, 2004 Timperley, 2005 Spillane, 2006). In addition there is also little empirical evidence towards the effectiveness of the impact that distributed leadership has towards increasing student attainment and promoting instructional improvement. On this basis, I was unable to find a definitive answer to my hypothesis, which was to determine whether distributed leadership could improve student grades. What I have become aware of is, distributive leadership can play a part to increasing student attainment. asunder from the improvement of student grades, distributed leadership is a powerful leadership strategy where evidence has shown contributes directly to school e ffectiveness and development (Muijs and Harris, 2003).It is also suggested that the structure of teacher leadership creates a more professional work standard atmosphere (Little, 1995), which leads to building of a professional community.Studies have found that a school with higher levels of teacher learning and leadership, significantly enhances teacher work in the classroom (Silns and Mulford, 2002) as such an environment encourages collaboration and trust. However the research has found Headteachers must be prepared to create a culture and climate that is favourable to teacher leadership (Bishop, Tinley Berman, 1997) as teacher leadership offers a realistic understanding of the idea maintained by the theory of distributed leadership as it presents leadership as an invention of a collective activity with all teachers being involved.Overall, the literature reviewed has allowed me generate a deeper understanding of both distributed leadership and teacher leadership. It was also app arent from the application of the literature to the context of my school that distributive practices do exist with some elements of teacher leadership. However, I am aware that it was not possible for me to directly railroad tie/test the literature to my problem as no action research into distributed and teacher leadership methods were trialled and tested. Nevertheless the literature has enabled me to build a divinatory base that would be