Saturday, August 31, 2019

Explain the Benefits and Opportunities to the Business of Using Internet Marketing Within the Marketing Mix a Selected Business

An effective ‘Marketing Mix' including all 7 is a way of identifying a business’s achievements of marketing objectives, meeting customer needs, is balanced and consistent, creates a competitive advantage and matches corporate resources. Product ASOS promotes their products very effectively as they use clever visual tools such as 360 degree view of their product, video and picture to enhance the quality of the product itself. They also provide a range of products and service including clothes, accessories, shoes/sandals etc and its provided for men and women.They include their own brand and designer wear which shows that they have high quality in their product. ASOS have mentioned in their annual report that their 20 biggest brands are now represented by a ‘shop in shop' providing a rich brand experience for their customers and a unique distribution platform for ASOS brand partners. ASOS also sells a range of products matching famous celebrity's outfits that custome rs would want to buy. ASOS, online or in their magazine provides customers the latest fashion info and what not to wear giving them an advantage to promote their products.Their business attract over 5. 2 million visitors per month Price The price has a lot of impact on the service buyer’s satisfaction level. Often, paying a higher price makes a customer more satisfied. Price is often considered a proxy for quality and vice-versa. What is important to note that services being all the more intangible, the price becomes an important factor for the actual service consumption to happen, after service awareness and service acknowledgement. Thier price for the products vary depending on the product – quality, brand etc.For the designer items it can be expensive, although ASOS may provide same looking product without the brand name making it affordable. With the price they offer ASOS is making a Profit over ? 10,009,000 figure taken from ASOS annual report as they have increas ed number of active shoppers over 1. 2 million Promotion The promtion plays a role in the perception the possible target audience may have about your service. There has to be a fit between the promotion and the positioning. Promotion leads to service (brand) recognition and further establishes a proxy to evaluate quality of services based by potential ustomers. ASOS uses their business is purely based upon the internet everything is promoted through the World Wide Web on the website and off. They have promotion on other websites and also ASOS has developed an application to allow customers to track particular products on its sites through their web browser, whatever websites they are looking at. The online retailer has used functionality within the latest version of Microsoft's Internet Explorer 8 web brower, which Microsoft released on March 19. PlacePlace represents the location where a product can be purchased. It is often known as the distribution channel. The place can be situa ted as a physical store or as virtuals stores on the internet. ASOS. com is rapidly becoming the market leader in the UK online fashion world. All the products are sold ONLINE and not located anywhere else where people can purchase ASOS items. ASOS does have a warehouse where all stocks are kept and together has a office located in hardfordshire. Processes processes are important to deliver a quality service.Services being intangible, processes become all the more crucial to ensure standards are met with. Process mapping ensures that your service is perceived as being dependable by your target segment. This is the procedures of activities which lead to an exchange of value. The process should include how customers are handled from first and last point of contact. ASOS is determined to be number one in the online market. They have thought through their process and kept it clear and have made it customer satisfactory. ASOS's strategy consists of aims that has a well-defined process.AS OS have control of their website, their information/images etc are presented without any doubt intelligibly promotional. Payments are all done through their website online as they are only an online business. Also they have a step-by-step information on how to use and buy off their website, they also have page on delivery information. Here they can track down on where shopping is, know how much is cost to deliver, know when to expect the delievery etc. People People is crucial in service delivery. The best food may not seem equally palatable if the waitress is in a sour mood.A smile always helps. Intensive training for your human resources on how to handle customers and how to deal with contingencies, is crucial for your success. People Are their employees, customers – their family and friends, and any other people associated with ASOS. com. Employees are important to this strategy of marketing mix as in can be those who deliever the products to customers. So they have to pol ite, helpful and have the knowledge of the business for them to answer any questions provided by the customer.It can also be the employees that answer the phone when any customer calls for any quiries. ASOS. com also have employees updating their website and replying to emails and online comments on their feedback page. ASOS employees has the knowledge, training and other aspect helping the business with marketing for their business. ASOS customers are also people that help in the marketing of services as they spread the business information. Physical evidence Pyhsical evidence affects the customer’s satisfaction.Often, services being intangible, customers depend on other cues to judge the offering. This is where physical evidence plays a part. Would you like eating at a joint where the table is greasy or the waitresses and cooks look untidy and wear a stained apron? Surely you would evaluate the quality of your experience through proxies such as these. As ASOS. com is an onl ine company their customer has difficulty not knowing how for example a dress will feel, look on them. ASOS therefore provides annual reports, articles, etc showing them that ASOS products are worth the value.ASOS helps customers with their products by giving them full information about the product. They have recieved awards that convince customers to buy online. First award was given to them in 2008 from Company High Street Awards for ‘Best Place To Spend' and the second was given in 2009 from Drapers Etail Awards for ‘Best Customer Experience Cosmopolitan Online Fashion Awards – Best for Bargains'. ASOS allows to give unwanted products back and their staff are always helpful and polite towards their customer as its one of their business objectives.

Counselling Skills Essay

1. Briefly describe in your own words what is meant by the term ‘counselling’. Counselling is a type of therapy offered to people who is experiencing any difficulties or troubles in life. Counselling gives them a chance to explore and address their problems and to figure out and decide how to deal with these problems emotionally and move on in their life. 2. What factors may make it difficult for a client to commit to counselling? What could you do to help overcome these barriers? Quite often, some people find it difficult or awkward talking to their family and friends about personal issues and are able when talking to a counsellor lay all their cards out on a table. However some people may find it daunting about telling a complete stranger what’s happening in their lives or perhaps worried about how they are going to be perceived by other people by seeking help. It might simply be because they are a closed person emotionally and is unable to open up. I would try to overcome these barriers by first establishing a lot of trust in my relationship as counsellor and client. When established the trust between my client I would then encourage them to talk openly about their issues and reassure them about the importance of confidentiality and absolutely no-one would have to know that they have been for counselling. 3. What are the ‘Core Counselling skills’? Briefly describe each one. 1. Genuineness – Being true, honest, authentic and completely non fake. 2. Acceptance – Completely accepting the client for who they are and not judging them in any way. Being impartial. 3. Empathy – Putting yourself in the client’s shoes, being able to identify with and understand their problems. 4. In your opinion, what are the most important skills required for effective counselling? Justify your answer. I believe the most important skills that are effective for counselling are Empathy, Acceptance, Compassion and genuineness. I think that if you cannot empathize with somebody then it is almost impossible to counsel them. If you cannot imagine what it is like to be their position then you cannot try to help them. I believe acceptance is important because if you allow your own  personal views and opinions get in the way then this will affect how well your therapy sessions go and what the result will be in the end. I believe it is important to be impartial. This is a principle that I use as a volunteer up the Citizens Advice Bureau. I believe compassion and genuineness are important skills because if the client thinks that you are not a compassionate, caring genuine person then they will not want you to counsel them. It will be almost impossible to gain any trust between the client and they will not open up and talk about their problems. Thus therapy will be a complete and utter waste of time for them. For example if somebody wants counselling for depression and are having suicidal thoughts, and you appear uncaring, then this might add to their own feelings of worthlessness and could potentially make the client worse. 5. Think about a time when you helped someone. Write a transcript of what happened and identify any particular counselling skills you employed. You should also make a reference to SOLER within your answer. I’m a big fan of the social networking site known as ‘Facebook’ and over time I noticed that someone who I’m friends with on there which I am only going to refer to as ‘M’ seemed very depressed and down in the dumps. Nearly everything she posted on Facebook was dark and depressing. At the time I didn’t know her that well and had only seen her around the area which I live. I eventually decided that I would Message M to see if she fancied a chat sometime and that I had noticed from the things that she had been saying that she seemed very unhappy. Over a period of time we started talking regularly, general chit chat mostly, and eventually she told me that she suffered from a mental illness called BPD (Borderline Personality Disorder) and that she is Bipolar. I decided to research BPD and to try to find out more about it. I learnt that BPD sufferers can have extreme mood swings, going from feeling wonderful one minute to suicidal the next. During our chats online I told M that if she ever wanted someone to talk to then I would always be there to listen. She told me of her feelings of lack of self worth and that in her opinion nobody really cared about her, or wanted to listen, not even her friends would make that much of an effort. She assumed that because of her mental health condition, not many people would be willing to get to know her. I was very persistent with M, reassuring her that I wanted to listen to her problems. I established a lot of trust with M because otherwise she  would not of told me these things. After a while I suggested to M about going for a coffee and a chat. I sat opposite her in the cafà ©, maintaining eye contact with her and leaning towards her slightly, interested in everything she had to say. As we talked I noticed that there was deep slash marks on both of her wrists. I asked her about them and She told me that she had tried to kill herself many times and that it made her feel better by cutting herself. That was when I decided that my own personal goal was to try and inject some positivity into this girls life and maybe over time she would not cut herself anymore? This girl needed to know that people did care about her and she wasn’t the horrible person she thought she was. After that we met up several times and even to this day we talk online, she has often thanked me for listening to her and has made me feel very good about myself. I think she is very appreciative to have someone who is genuinely interested in her thoughts and feelings. I can definitely empathize with M because in the past I have personally suffered from Anxiety and Paranoia, thus making me feel very down in the dumps and I also believed at the time nobody wanted to listen to me either. Iv accepted M for who she is, not letting her mental illness deter me whatsoever. I’ve learnt something new and find mental health very interesting. I think for some people that if they do not understand something then they treat it with ignorance. Hopefully over time I will help to build up her confidence but there is some very serious underlying problems as to why she cuts herself. This is an ongoing progress but I am determined to get there one day.

Friday, August 30, 2019

El Filibusterismo Essay

Thirteen years after leaving the Philippines, Crisostomo Ibarra returns as Simoun, a rich jeweler sporting a beard and blue-tinted glasses, and a confidant of the Captain-General. He cynically sides with the upper classes, encouraging them to commit abuses against the masses to encourage the latter to revolt against the oppressive Spanish colonial regime. His two reasons for instigating a revolution are at first, to rescue Marà ­a Clara from the convent and second, to get rid of ills and evils of Philippine society. His true identity is discovered by a now grown-up Basilio while visiting the grave of his mother, Sisa, as Simoun was digging near the grave site for his buried treasures. Simoun spares Basilio’s life and asks him to join in his planned revolution against the government, egging him on by bringing up the tragic misfortunes of the latter’s family. Basilio declines the offer as he still hopes that the country’s condition will improve. Basilio, at this p oint, is a graduating medical student at the Ateneo Municipal. After the death of his mother, Sisa, and the disappearance of his younger brother, Crispà ­n, Basilio heeded the advice of the dying boatman, Elà ­as, and traveled to Manila to study. Basilio was adopted by Captain Tiago after Marà ­a Clara entered the convent. Simoun, for his part, keeps in close contact with the bandit group of Kabesang Tales, a former cabeza de barangay who suffered misfortunes at the hands of the friars. He was forced to give everything he had owned to the greedy, unscrupulous Spanish friars and the Church. Before joining the bandits, Tales took Simoun’s revolver while Simoun was staying at his house for the night. As payment, Tales leaves a locket that once belonged to Marà ­a Clara. To further strengthen the revolution, Simoun has Quiroga, a Chinese man hoping to be appointed consul to the Philippines, smuggle weapons into the country using Quiroga’s bazaar as a front. Simoun wishes to attack during a stage play with all of his enemies in attendance. He, however, abruptly aborts the attack when he learns from Basilio that Marà ­a Clara had died earlier that day in the convent. A few days after the mock celebration by the stu dents, the people are agitated when disturbing posters are found displayed around the city. The authorities accuse the students present at the panciterà ­a of agitation and disturbing peace and has them arrested. Basilio, although not present at the mock celebration, is  also arrested. Captain Tiago dies after learning of the incident. But before he dies he signs a will. His will originally states that Basilio should inherit all his property but due to this forgery his property is given in parts, one to Santa Clara, one for the archbishop, one for the Pope, and one for the religious orders leaving nothing for Basilio to be inherited. Basilio is left in prison as the other students are released. Basilio is soon released with the help of Simoun. Basilio, now a changed man, and after hearing about Julà ®Ã¢â‚¬â„¢s suicide, finally joins Simoun’s revolution. Simoun then tells Basilio his plan at the wedding of Paulita Gà ³mez and Juanito, Basilio’s hunch-backed classmate. His plan was to conceal an explosive which contains nitroglycerin inside a pomegranate-st yled Kerosene lamp that Simoun will give to the newlyweds as a gift during the wedding reception. According to Simoun, the lamp will stay lighted for only 20 minutes before it flickers; if someone attempts to turn the wick, it will explode and kill everyone—important members of civil society and the Church hierarchy—inside the house. Basilio has a change of heart and attempts to warn Isagani, his friend and the former boyfriend of Paulita. Simoun leaves the reception early as planned and leaves a note behind: Initially thinking that it was simply a bad joke, Father Salvà ­ recognizes the handwriting and confirms that it was indeed Ibarra’s. As people begin to panic, the lamp flickers. Father Irene tries to turn the wick up when Isagani, due to his undying love for Paulita, bursts in the room and throws the lamp into the river, sabotaging Simoun’s plans. He escapes by diving into the river as guards chase after him. He later regrets his impulsive action because he had contradicted his own belief that he loved his nation more than Paulita and that the explosion and revolution could have fulfilled his ideals for Filipino society. Simoun, now unmasked as the perpetrator of the attempted arson and failed revolution, becomes a fugitive. Wounded and exhausted after he was shot by the pursuing Guardia Civil, he seeks shelter at the home of Father Florentino, Isagani’s uncle, and comes under the care of doctor Tiburcio de Espadaà ±a, Doà ±a Victorina’s husband, who was also hiding at the house. Simoun takes poison in order for him not to be captured alive. Before he dies, he reveals his real identity to Florentino while they exchange thoughts about the failure of his revolution and why God forsook him, when all he wanted was to avenge the people important to him that were wronged, such as Elias,  Maria Clara and his father, Don Rafael. Florentino opines that God did not forsake him and that his plans were not for the greater good but for personal gain. Simoun, finally accepting Florentino’s explanation, squeezes his hand and dies. Florentino then takes Simoun’s remaining jewels and throws them into the Pacific Ocean with the corals hoping that they would not be used by the greedy, and th at when the time came that it would be used for the greater good.

Anime Addiction Essay

Anime had widely spread in the whole world, its positive and negative effects are continuously being debated. 1.What is the history of Anime? 2.What are the reasons Anime Addiction? 3.What are the common positive effects of anime Addiction? 4.What are the common negative effects of anime Addiction? Intoduction A.Background information B.Importance of the paper C.Statement of the problem D.Definition of terms  Anime addicton A.Reason of anime addiction 1.manga games 3.movies 4. anime series B. positive effect of anime addiction 1.culture 3.language interaction C.Negative effects of anime addiction 2.immoral activities disposal Conclusion. The rapid rise of anime has seen much controversy in this generation. We are bombarded with the popularity of anime where many people especially teenagers around the world were involved. anime Addiction is actually a very serious problem for it involves many people where only themselves can solve it. The history of anime began at the start of the 20th century, when Japanese filmmakers experimented with the animation techniques that were being explored in the West. The first generation of animators in the late 1910s included Ã…Å'ten Shimokawa, Jun’ichi KÃ… uchi and Seitaro Kitayama, referred to as the â€Å"fathers† of anime.[1] During World War II, propaganda films such as MomotarÃ…  no Umiwashi (1943) and MomotarÃ… : Umi no Shinpei (1945) were made, the later being the first anime feature film. During the 1970s, anime developed further, separating itself from its Western roots, and developing distinct genres such as mecha and its Super Robot sub-genre. Typical shows from this period include Lupin III and Mazinger Z. During this period several filmmakers became famous, especially Hayao Miyazaki and Mamoru Oshii. In the 1980s, anime was accepted in the mainstream in Japan, and experienced a boom in production. The rise of Gundam, Macross, Dragon Ball, and the Real Robot and space opera genres set a boom as well. The film Akira set records  in 1988 for the production costs of an anime film and went on to become a success worldwide. Later, in 2004, the same creators produced Steamboy, which took over as the most expensive anime film. Space Battleship Yamato and The Super Dimension Fortress Macross also achieved worldwide success after being adapted respectively as Star Blazers and Robotech. First generation Here are the first generation of the history of anime, Few complete animations made during the beginnings of Japanese animation have survived. The reasons vary, but many are of commercial nature. KatsudÃ…  Shashin (æ ´ »Ã¥â€¹â€¢Ã¥â€ â„¢Ã§Å"Ÿ, Moving Picture), a short which lasts 3 seconds, was possibly produced in 1907. The film was found in Kyoto in July 2005. The undated film consists of fifty frames drawn directly onto a strip of celluloid release. The discoverer, Natsuki Matsumoto, has speculated that it could be â€Å"up to 10 years older† than the previously first known Japanese animation, Imokawa Mukuzo Genkanban no Maki, released in 1917. However, while a date of circa 1915 is possible, there is no actual basis for this extreme speculation. Ã…Å'ten Shimokawa was a political caricaturist and cartoonist who worked for the magazine Tokyo Puck. He was hired by Tenkatsu to do an animation for them. Due to medical reasons, he was only able to do five movies, including Imokawa Mukuzo Genkanban no Maki (1917), before he returned to his previous work as a cartoonist. Another prominent animator in this period was Jun’ichi KÃ… uchi. He was a caricaturist and painter, who also had studied watercolor painting. In 1912, he also entered the cartoonist sector and was hired for an animation by Kobayashi Shokai later in 1916. He is viewed as the most technically advanced Japanese animator of the 1910s. His works include around 15 movies. Seitaro Kitayama was an early animator who made animations on his own, not hired by larger corporations. He even founded his own animation studio, the Kitayama Eiga Seisakujo, which was later closed due to lack of commercial  success. He utilized the chalkboard technique, and later paper animation, with and without pre-printed backgrounds. The works of these two pioneers include Namakura Gatana (An Obtuse Sword, 1917) and a 1918 film Urashima TarÃ…  which were discovered together at an antique market in 2007.[3] Anime and manga is not ‘kid stuff,’ and it’s nothing like American cartoons. Most of it is produced for a teenage or adult audience. Anime series change over time; the plot is often intricate, and characters change, grow, and often die. The unpredictibility and emotional depth of anime as opposed to American cartoons is part of the appeal. Many anime series such as ‘Evangelion’ or ‘Battle Angel Alita’ are quite introspective as well as action-packed, and study questions of love, trust, and other deep feelings. To understand anime, it is fairly important to have at least a little understanding of Japanese culture itself. Anime and manga are currently produced for an exclusively Japanese audience–authors are often shocked to hear that they have American or European fans–and are thus based on cultural assumptions and references that Americans find puzzling at best. Some important points: The Japanese view of the universe is that it is inherently amoral, unlike the American view, which is that the universe should be fair (and is, on TV). Therefore, good characters can die pointlessly, and evil can win. Also, people are not divided into good and bad–many anime characters are a complex mix of good and evil. Here are some of the problem statement of this paper; What is the history of anime; What are the reason’s of anime addiction; What are the common positive effect of anime addiction; And lastly what are the common negative effect of anime addiction. Technical words used in the research paper. Anime addiction A.Reason of anime addiction 1.Manga According to NekoChibi-chan Manga is addicting because (for every person) There is always some theme or event or story that people enjoy. No matter who, where, or what you like. If you find the right manga-With the right illustration- You start to like it and you start reading more of it. I think that the drawings and events make a big difference compared to a normal book making it more pleasurable. There is always a manga out there or two out there for everyone! 2.Video games According to asa123 japanese games has a good graphics compared to other’s like western games, and everytime you are playing in an anime games it feel like your’e actually in the game it self as the hero or heroine, and lastly the game player was really well executed for a 3D fighter. 3. Movies and series According to raiken blade of USA as a self-confessed anime addict, I’ll have to say that there are several reasons why anime movies and series is so addicting; Characters The first, and probably the most compelling reason of all, is the sheer beauty by which the makers create their characters. Out of all cartoons in the world, it is only in Japanese anime that I have seen such well rounded and realistic characters that are so distinctly human. Anime does not delude the viewers into thinking that someone can be perfect. The heroes and heroines in anime, beautiful as they may be, have their own flaws and insecurities. They’re not like the princesses in the cartoon fairy tales who are epitomes of grace and goodness, and are thereby incredibly flat and drab. Anime heroes and heroines are human, and their humanity makes them all the more interesting. Also, because they each have their own personalities, we’re sure to find at  least one character in every show with whom we can relate with and empathize with. And this is one of the biggest reasons why we get hooked in anime versus American cartoons because we’re always trying to find out what’s going to happen with our favorite characters. Plots The plots in anime are just as much reason to get addicted as the characters themselves. Anime Series are almost always gifted with great plots. The plots are seldom ever watered down to suit the audience, thus never undermining the intelligence of the viewers as some of the other cartoon series do. They anime makers can dish out the most elaborate plots and never worry whether anyone will understand whether they will be understood or not – after all, anime is not simply a franchise, it’s a form of art, and if people don’t understand it today. Then maybe the people of tomorrow will. Anime plots are always suffused with a sufficient amount of suspense, drama, intrigue, politics, and enough twists and turns to leave your jaw hanging. And not only that, they’re usually deep and always have a lesson attached to them. Animation Okay, let’s not deny it. Part of the reason why we watch anime is because it simply looks amazing. Although they are in 2D format, sometimes they are drawn even better then the ones that are created in 3D. Those overly large eyes, those gravity defying hairstyles, those weirder than weird clothes; they’re simply perfect and enough to make anyone keep coming back for more. The artistic amazement is just none stop however you look at it. â€Å"Korean Pop Addiction† Introduction Music is part of everyone’s life; countries around the world are continuously producing songs or music that may rise up, be popular, and could top the international music chart board. One of these country is Korea (Hanguk  Ã¢â‚¬Å"í•Å"ê µ ­Ã¢â‚¬ ), they are one of the 21st century rising country in the world because of how uniqueness their music is, how they sing the song, dance and produce its music video which captured many fans and became a Korean pop lover or Korean pop addict. Korea has many artists, and these artists are not immature artists, for they are trained very well first before standing in stage and perform in front of many people. Most of these artists have been starting their training at a very young age 15, and as an achievement they can make their debut after 4-5 years just like finishing a course in college, which can be a valid reason why Korean pop invasion is widely spread in the whole world for their artists are very professional. But before we sta rt with the problem or the topic, let us first define what addiction is, addiction is a state of being obsess with something. The rapid rise of Korean pop has seen much controversy in this generation. We are bombarded with the popularity of Korean pop where many people especially teenagers around the world were involved and are very fund of these, by collecting souvenirs and downloading music videos or any videos about Korean pop artists which leads to addiction. Korean pop Addiction is actually a very serious problem for it involves many people that cannot be cured by a physician nor a psychologist but only themselves; people involve; can heal or solve it. Korean pop Addiction is like obesity, for you need to have a proper discipline in order to lose weight, same goes with Korean pop addiction, you need to have proper discipline to minimize or lessen your obsession. Korean pop addiction will not be called a serious problem if there are no side effects. It holds many behavioral nega tive side effects that may affect the patient seriously, like for example, attempting murder. Many obsess fans had been doing this, and they are usually called the anti-fans. Aside from it having behavioral negative effects, it also holds positive effects that affect the person positively in the improvement of their life. One source of Korean pop addiction is the electronic communication network or simply what we call internet, where all information that a fan need can be found. History of Kpop or Korean pop. I. History of Kpop or Korean Pop Every word or thing exist in this world has its own history or background which tells us how that certain word or thing started to exist. The study of the history of Kpop or Korean Pop shows details how they started, who influence them and how they became popular or rise up. A.20th Century the history of Korean Popular music can be traced back to the 20th century when an American missionary started teaching an American and British folk songs at the school which were called changga (ì ° ¬Ãª °â‚¬) in Korean and were typically based on a popular western melody sung with Korean lyrics. 1.1940s-1960s According to Wikipedia, this is the year of the arrival of the Western culture. After the partition of Korean Peninsula, Western cultures was introduced into South Korea on a small scale with a few Western style bars and clubs playing Western music and were accepted by a wider crowd of young adults. Because of this, the United Service Organization made it possible for several prominent figures of American entertainment to visit the soldiers stationed in Korea which prompted attention from the Korean public. American music started influencing Korean music; Improvements in the recording systems encouraged the production in this year, which led to the pursuit of diverse voice tones. Korean musicians and singers formerly only performing at American clubs started opening up to wider audiences (â€Å"K-Pop†). 2.1970s According to Wikipedia, at the end of the 1960s and beginning of the 1970s Korean pop music underwent another transformation, a year of Korean hippie folk pop. Musicians now tended to university students and graduates and made music fun and self entertaining unlike the earlier generations. These young musicians were heavily influenced by American culture and lifestyle, unlike their predecessors who had to experience war and Japanese oppression. This generational conflict was well reflected in the reception of the folk pop music of the †²70s. The audience consisted mostly of students following the American hippie style in fashion and music alike, with guitars and jeans becoming a symbol of youth. Hippie folk pop remained popular among the youth so much so that the local television channel MBC(Music Bank Core) organized a music contest for university students which consequently led to the foundation of several modern music festivals. In this year, DJs also started  to become pop ular, deeply impacting teenage culture (â€Å"K-Pop†). 3.1980s According to Wikipedia, this year is called the era of the ballads, in which Korean entertainment started singing and liking the tune of the ballad music (â€Å"K-Pop†). 4.1990s  According to Wikipedia, the turning point happens in this year, where ballads were changed into different kind of styles like rap, rock and techno music. This turning point also led to the emergence of so-called idol bands composing of young boys and girls in one group (â€Å"K-Pop†). B.21st Century According to Wikipedia, towards the turn of this century, the K-pop genre began spreading out to other regions of the world as part of the global Korean wave. Many idols bands or groups debuted with different styles. Each are being classified as a boy band/group, girl band/group or a coed band/group which is a mixture of a boy and girl member (â€Å"K-Pop†). II.Kinds of Kpop or Korean Pop Fans If there’s one thing anybody notices about Korean Pop fans, it’s probably the fact that Korean Pop fans have one of the most unique subcultures of fandom ever created by any type of music in the world. Due to the rapid rise of Korean pop industries, and within the fandom of a group lie a whole bunch of different types of fans.And each fans falls into at least one category fans that defines what type or kind of fan a certain person is and how less or worse their addiction or obsession is. A. Anti-Fans According to Christopher NG, they are probably the weirdest product of Korean pop but anti-fans are the exact opposite of fans. The only goal of an anti-fan is to hate a specific group. They do this by trying to dig up all kinds of information about the past of the idol singer in hopes of creating a scandal and making the idols life miserable. They’ve also been known to start rumors that have become full blown scandals. Anti-fans are usually created out of jealousy. When their favorite idol starts dating or is even just rumored to be dating another idol, they automatically become anti-fans of that other idol. Some have even gone so far as to try and physically assault the Korean pop idols they hate (â€Å"The K-Pop Fandom Family Tree† 11). B.Babies According to Christopher NG, Korean pop babies are those who are relatively new to the Korean pop scene and usually focus on just one group, their fandom. This is the most critical time for a Korean pop fan because it can make or break interest in Korean pop as a whole. If a Korean pop baby is unable to find enough material such as music videos, variety show guestings and interviews of their favorite idols, chances are their liking of Korean pop will not take root and it will be very short lived (â€Å"The K-Pop Fandom Family Tree† 10).

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Systems maintainence Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Systems maintainence - Research Paper Example Theoretically, a reliable product is completely free of any technical errors. In practical world, there is no an ideal system (Huo, Zhang, Wang, & Yan, 2005). The reliability-Centred Maintenance Reliability-Centred Maintenance, simply called RCM is a system improvement approach that focuses on identifying and fixing the maintenance, operational and capital enhancement policies that would manage the dangers of equipment failure in the most effective way (Hauge & Johnston, 2001). It is a framework that facilitates the definition of a total maintenance regime. It considers maintenance as the means through which the functions required by a user are met. As a discipline, RCM enables machinery stakeholders to observe, predict, asses, and in general terms understand the working of their practical assets (Douglas & Greg, 1997). This is included in the first part of the RCM procedures that involves identifying the operating context of the given system, and document a Failure Mode Effects and Critically Analysis Applying the â€Å"RCM logic† is the second part of the analysis, which helps to establish the suitable maintenance tasks for the spotted failure modes of FMECA. Immediately the logic is complete for the entire FMECA elements, the outcome of the maintenance are â€Å"packed† in order for the task periodicities to be rationalized and be called up in the work packets. However, it is vital not to demolish the maintenance applicability at this stage. Lastly, it is advisable for RCM to be kept live during the entire â€Å"in-service† machinery life, where the efficiency of the maintenance is reviewed constantly and adjusted as per the experience obtained (Douglas & Greg, 1997). The RCM method can be used to recognize the most effective way to utilize resources for medical system maintenance. It involves spotting out actions that when applied, will decrease the possibility of failure and that are more cost-friendly. It seeks the best mix of Conditi on-founded actions, a Run-to Failure, or Time-or-Cycle-Based operations approach. Reliability-Cantered Maintenance is a continuous process that collects data on uses and performance of data to enhance planning for maintenance in future. These maintenance methods, rather than being used independently, are put together to take advantage of their respective powers to optimise equipment/departmental operation and competence within a particular resource constraint (Huo, Zhang, Wang, & Yan, 2005). RCM approach employs Planned Preventive Maintenance (PPM), repair, proactive maintenance methods, and Predictive Testing and Inspection. (PT&I) techniques are an integrated way to increase the likelihood that a medical component or device will work in the required way over its design life-cycle. The aim of this approach is to offer the required availability and reliability at the lowest cost possible. It necessitates that maintenance decisions be founded on the requirements justified by economic and technical support. Like for any approach, there are numerous processes or paths that lead to an eventual end. This is especially a reality for RCM, where the results of failure can differ dramatically (Hauge & Johnston, 2001). Define supportability and how it is used in the system design process Supportability refers to the level to which the design features of a support or standby system meet the operational needs of a firm (Yu, Li, Jia, & Li, 2012). In

Preamble to the Constitution Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Preamble to the Constitution - Term Paper Example The term â€Å"We the people† (Morris) was a revolutionary move for the time-frame; it went against all former precedents of naming each state that ratified a document, it cut out the possibility of developing ruling factions from within. (Cullop) Patrick Henry asserted that the wording meant an intention to â€Å"create a consolidated national government-not a system as planned by James Madison which was neither nationalist nor federalist-but a combination of both.†3 If the term â€Å"we are a collection†, had been used, it would have taken longer for the people of America to have a defined sense of identity-one that brought them together as a new nation. Collections of people are always in the process of self-definition, whereas immediately aligning American citizens as one people, the writers of the preamble gave Americans a sense of identity. ... (Hamilton) In writing the Preamble, the authors tried to address the major concerns of the nationalists. One of those concerns was justice: â€Å"In the 18th century, - law enforcement depended on active community support and participation, popular resistance was informal and extralegal—consisting of everything from polite petitions for repeal to outright obstruction of the law in the form of jury nullification and violent mob action. The creation of a national republic led to efforts to domesticate these sorts of activities.†5 By including â€Å"establish justice† in the Preamble as one of the main reasons for writing the Constitution, they were declaring that all men would receive fair treatment under the law if accused of a crime, and ensure all men had equality within the law. The Constitution did not always establish justice; after all, with each of the amendments to the Constitution established laws have been struck down, amended or adopted in favor of citi zens’ rights. The symbol of the Supreme Court is-â€Å"Equal Justice Under Law†6, yet, for many years now the Supreme Court has seemed to ‘make constitutional law’ instead of using it as a guideline. As far back as 1976, this was seen to be a major issue in this country, when this question was asked by Professor Lusky; â€Å"the question whether the United States Supreme Court is still the law's servant or has become its master.†7 The final topic relates to â€Å"provide for the general welfare†, which appears twice in the Constitution; once in the Preamble and again in Article 1, Section 8. It was placed in the Preamble as a result of ongoing concern for economic stability. The framers of the constitution therefore authorized Congress to be able to

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Sustainable architecture Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Sustainable architecture - Research Paper Example Sustainable architecture starts with linkage to personal values and involves the social, environmental and economic conditions of a project. Similarly, architectural expression emanates from this desire, responding to certain watershed, locations, sites, societies and proximities. The answers to what constitutes sustainable architecture embrace a range as wide and dynamic as the challenges facing the globe and the statements list is as diverse and extensive as the civilization the dominate the world. Sustainable development embraces a balanced sociocultural, ecological and economic progress. The above elements also characterize sustainable architecture. Construction and design is one of the extensive world industries; hence their effects on sustainability are enormous, (Turrent 85). The metropolis and municipalities people have designed and constructed to satisfy their ever-increasing requirements have been unproductively consuming the resources of the earth, while declining to satis fy millions of humans. Sustainable architecture is a necessity if people wish to ensure human and enduring planet existence. Attaining sustainable architecture needs a multifaceted global effort by all countries. Sustainable architectural practices must appear in all places, address various challenges, occur in various levels, function in different contexts, serve various requirements and limitations, be applicable at various scales and use diverse disciplines. Similarly, the possibilities, requirements, potentials are diverse in each nation, similar to levels of education, techniques, industrializations, mechanisms, strategies and motivation. Each nation, person and community, should identify best-suited remedies, and via domestic action contribute to progress at a global level. Sustainable architecture is sweeping change in that it can be attained globally. There are various areas to start, various points to address the challenge, diverse attractive ways to construct structures an d towns and increased effective ways to utilize, replenish and recycle resources. In other words, it ranges from high- tech remedies to low technological strategies, research, advancements, education, industrial achievements, innovation of design, economic aspects, legislative measures and enormous adoption of beneficial practices as principle practices. Significant potential lies in substituting adverse measures with beneficial measures and increasing the advancements in architectural structures and cities all over the globe. Sustainable construction should support better living that incorporates better utilization of land, urban development and construction. Better land use involves preservation of useful, natural areas and ensures health balance amidst constructed and natural environments. Better urban planning entail proficient means of transportation and effective systems of infrastructure – constructed to reduce consumption, garbage and affluence during utilization. Eff icient towns, municipalities and structures, are long lasting, appealing and flexible to other future uses, effective in resource use (energy and raw materials such as recycling after use), and well suited to environmental, human and society needs. Sustainable arch

Report 1500 words Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Report 1500 words - Essay Example Social factors are those which include the family backgrounds, the geographical areas, the socio-economic classes, and other factors relating to types of schools, teachers, and education. Primary schools in the UK suffer many social factors influencing the provision of education because UK is a multicultural society with various socio-economic classes, different types of schools such as private and public, and several family backgrounds. Schools teach socializing to students and give them common values according to which they develop their personalities away from their ethnic, cultural, or economic backgrounds (Hawkins, 2012, p. 116). However, at times the social factors intervene in the provision of education to students and affect their nurturing. There are some schools that are private and some public which affects the provision of education. Private schools consist of the students who belong to higher socio-economic classes. Such schools have teachers who provide high quality education to students and focus on their designed plans and curriculums; in addition to giving students ethical and religious values that would bring them closer to humanity and developing a strong personality. Public schools provide primary education to students coming from all sorts of social backgrounds. Even though these schools have governors, leaders, managers, and staff members who are continually monitored by the government, they often fail to minimize the differences between students. At times, language barriers and ethnic differences affect the provision of education in public schools as they are located in districts which ofte n have people from the same cultures, or people from diverse cultures (Sylva, 2010, p. 56). Socio-economic factors deal with the areas where the schools are located. Some students are situated in areas where there are ethnic minorities whereas some are located in low socio-economic areas. These

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

American history Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

American history - Assignment Example Answer 1 Social regulations refer to the measures taken by the government to protect public interest such as health, environmental controls, safety regulations and also restrictions on advertising and labeling. The cold war period experienced intense government intervention on social regulations. The government established many regulatory agencies such as Environmental protection Agency, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Consumer Product Safety Commission, and Occupation Safety and Health Administration (Hook 67). These policies were meant to deal with the social problems that existed in America at the time. Social regulations had a positive impact on the short run. This is because they helped to bring sanity in most sectors of the economy. Cold war threatened the social stability of the country and the government had to ensure the safety of its citizens mostly in production of goods by industries. However, in the long term effec ts are both positive and negative. The negative effect was that they have reduced the competitiveness of American companies due to high compliance and opportunity costs. In addition, there have been high expenditures on litigation which increases the cost of production. However, measures such as environmental protection have enabled the country to assure its population good health and hygiene (Hook 78). Answer 2 The statement is wholly valid. Conservatism is founded on four fundamental concepts which are liberty, tradition and order, rule of law and belief in God. The evangelical Christians were motivated by emphasis on Judeo- Christian values, advocated by Goldwater and Reagans in their campaigns. The Judeo- Christian values were predominant during the fist half on the 20th century and were now being reignited. Conservatism also emphasized on family values. They stood against same sex marriage, abortion and sexual permissiveness (Hook65). In addition, it advocated for strengthening of traditional standards in public life, religious life and education. These issues enabled conservatism to gain popularity among popularity among people. There was also emergence of a political right group that sought to counter communism in America. They wanted to fight spirit of communism. They believed on the fight against overregulation of free market capitalism, expansion of welfare state, growing power of labor unions and activism in courts. They saw these policies to be against the American values and sought to fight against their implementation (Hook 67). These political ideologies combined with those of mass culture and religion encouraged many people to join politics at the time. However, these values were not new but reignited the ideologies of the first half of 20th century. Answer 3 Cold war period witnessed many foreign policies being formulated by United States. These policies run parallel with domestic affair. The government sought to promote ideas of capitalism an d democracy. America supported corrupt, which were friendly to its policies. These ideologies run parallel with intensive indoctrination of American people. The indoctrination involved anti- communism propaganda and cold war rhetoric. The major vehicle used to propagate capitalist ideals was the film industry (Hook 345). Some actors and actress were blacklisted for

Entrepreneurship and Innovation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Entrepreneurship and Innovation - Essay Example Dragons Inc. in the Chinese market. Dragons Inc. operates as a group of entrepreneurs which significantly focuses on delivering advanced products to the market. With the concept of innovation, The Presto! Soup E-duper is one of the recently developed kitchen appliances of the organization which involves multi tasking facilities including mixing, blending as well as crocking capacity. The organization manufactures its innovative products which facilitate the customers to obtain new experiences of technological advancements and preparing tasty as well as health food items in a lesser time and in a cost-convenient way. The Soup E-Duper will be produced by Kitch-in-Zinc Plc, especially to target the new customer segments in the Chinese market. Therefore, the paper intends to prepare a viability report of Soup E-Duper in the Chinese market by considering the major factors of the marketplace, product and manufacturing issues that might to be faced by the organization. Moreover, the discuss ion of the report will further focus on developing an effective business plan for the organization to successfully operate Soup E-duper in the Chinese market. Part One: Analysis of the Chinese Marketplace External Business Environment The business environment in China can be identified as sustainable for foreign companies which are mostly related with manufacturing industries, or tourism or education sectors. For instance, the current political and economic environment of the nation depicts the elements to be in favour of companies which attempt to set-up its manufacturing operations within the country with the belief that it would increase job opportunities for the Chinese community and simultaneously facilitate the growth of the overall economy. Furthermore, China also encourages foreign investment from companies which belong to the nations aligned through World Trade Organisation (WTO) and other treaties with the economy (Yueh, 2012). Notably, as it can be identified that the pro duct intended to be manufactured in China, i.e. Soup E-Duper, is patented by a UK based entrepreneurial group, Dragon Inc. and also manufactured by another European firm Kitch-in-Zinc Plc, the business plan can attain greater benefits even in relation to legal obligations. Furthermore, as the economic conditions prevailing within the Chinese market can be observed as growing with stability, it can be affirmed that the marketing prospects of the business plan can also be expected to yield better returns as per the expectations of the investors, including Dragon Inc. and Kitch-in-Zinc Plc. It is worth mentioning in this regard that with the growing GDP of the economy, which is currently recorded as 7.8%, the lifestyle preferences are also enhancing within the Chinese community (Yao, 2012). This can further be attributed as a positive aspect for the successful accomplishment of the objectives considered in this business plan. The offered product, i.e. the Soup E-Duper allows enhanced l ifestyle to its customers rendering the facilities of easy blending, mixing, and processing through crock pot. It is also intended to

Monday, August 26, 2019

DB5 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

DB5 - Essay Example Each and every member gets to learn about everyone’s behavior in the organization. Every member tries to avoid conflicts and every member gets busy. In this stage, every member gets to learn about the organization routines and the challenges (Moger 2000). The second phase is the storming; where by each member’s ideas try to compete for consideration. Here, the team members discuss the issues in the organization and try to look for solutions. The third stage is the norming where the team members agree on one plan and on one goal. Some of the members are forced to give up on their ideas in order to agree with others in the team (Moger 1999). The last stage is the performing where the members are able to function like a team. They find their own ways as to how the jobs can be effectively and efficiently done. The members are able to perform their job with less supervision (White 2009). The manager is in the third stage, norming. This is, because the manager has to make the late worker to give up on her lateness so that the whole team can work as a whole. The late work has to agree with the other members of the team so that the team can function well and

Project Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Project - Assignment Example He has emphasized on the some of the most important areas of human development which include health and education. According to Kanna (2011), Al-Maktoum has invested heavily on education as well on the development of knowledge within the region of UAE by grooming potential leaders within the private as well as public sectors of UAE and also by promoting other crucial areas such as research and development, business leadership, youth empowerment, cultural development, preservation of traditional heritage and also promoting various platforms for the economy. Under his leadership, UAE has become an economic powerhouse (Davis). The leadership approach by Al-Maktoum has been transformational. Literally speaking, transformational leadership is a leadership style which is able to implicit certain positive changes within the people who follow the leader (Bass). Transformational leaders like Al-Maktoum are energetic, passionate as well as highly enthusiastic. The government of Al-Maktoum has not only transformed the fate of UAE but has made UAE as one of the most dominant countries in the world (Davidson). An insight on the leadership strategy of Al-Maktoum can be further elaborated: Self-awareness: Al-Maktoum’s government has consistently got in touch with the citizens of UAE and has asked people for feedback and suggestions for improvements and has also listened to what is needed for improvement. Eliminating self interest: The leadership approach of Al-Maktoum goes beyond portraying any level of self interest or selfishness and is an approach which has a mass effect. His strategy has balanced any potential conflict of interest which may arise between the citizens. According to Al-Al (2008), by implementing an adequate level of trust as well as by generating the enthusiastic support from his subordinates, leaders have the adequate ability in improving individual as well as team performance. Due to this reason, this of approach of

Sunday, August 25, 2019

How is cell phone affectin our daily life Research Paper

How is cell phone affectin our daily life - Research Paper Example The overall effects and contribution of cell phones, taking the benefits and hazards of daily life into consideration, helps to understand the impacts of cell phone in daily life. Introduction The advent of cell phones has revolutionized our daily livelihood. Cell phone has become an integral part of our daily life and is one of the basic needs of the life. In every step of our daily life starting from eating, talking, working and sleeping, cell phone is involved in numerous functions that we undertake. It has become next to impossible to imagine about our lives without the use of cell phone. This could be evidenced from the fact that if our cell phone is damaged or lost, we do not wait or think twice but immediately take actions of either buying a new one or repairing it as soon as possible. The availability of cell phones in the market is also has been an area of achievement by the manufacturers, wholesalers and retailers. A wide range of cell phones are available in the market in terms of quality, style and price. Even high quality and branded cell phones are available in the market at affordable cost. The marketing channels used by the sellers are also of a wide range that varies from multiple shopping channels, electronic channels, etc. The cells phone are electronic gadgets that offer multiple benefits on different situational circumstances to the user. Apart from the communication aspect of cell phones, cell phones are used for the purpose of entertainment, watching and listening to videos, music, songs, etc. Apart from this, cell phones serve as life saving instruments for the user in order to rescue themselves under dire circumstances. Cell phones have the passive attitudes of life into aspects of talking initiative. Rather than waiting for an event to happen or information to be retrieved, cell phones allow the user to take the initiative of reaching to the happening place of the event or to acquire the desired information. Apart from the benefits, ce ll phones also affect our daily lives through environmental and health hazards (Katz, 23). The launch of new mobile phone with upgraded technology draws many users who scrap their old devices and buy a new cell phone. Thus the debris of cell phone is piled up in the society. The toxic metals like cadmium, lead, nickel, mercury, manganese, lithium, zinc, arsenic, antimony and copper and other heavy metals present in the cell phones add to the environmental wastes and cause pollution. The health hazards that are caused by the cell phones include cell phone elbow, malignant gliomas, acoustic neuromas, heart ailments, etc. Research Problem The research problem defined for this research is, â€Å"How is cell phone affecting our daily life?† The research problem has been designed to explain the positive and negative impacts of cell phone in our daily life along wit the changes that have been brought about by its usage. Literature review The communication channels of the world have developed through ages. The technologies have produced its fruits which have revolutionized the ways of leading life. The ways of communication are, however, classified as passive and active. The passive ways of communication is not under the control of the user. The user has to wait for initiation of the communication or has to wait for the information for a particular period of time. The

United States of America, Appellee v. Russell Hoffmann, Appellant Case Study

United States of America, Appellee v. Russell Hoffmann, Appellant - Case Study Example  § 201(c) (1) (A). Hoffman, however, argues that he gave Schwening a gift as a friend and not for official reasons. Issue: The court of appeal was to determine whether Russell D. Hoffmann (Appellant) contravened 18 U.S.C.  § 201(c) (1) (A) by giving a gratuity to Schwening, as earlier affirmed by a state court. Russell D. Hoffmann argued otherwise. 18 U.S. Code  § 201 Applies to bribery of public officials and witnesses. 18 U.S.C.  § 201(c)(1)(A) defines the term â€Å"official act† as any action or decision regarding any question or cause that, at any time according to the law, may be presented to a public official in an official capacity in the official’s trust (LII, 2015). In determining the law, the government must ascertain the relationship between a thing of valued presented to a public official and the specific â€Å"public act† for or the reason to which it was offered. Reason: Based on the evidence presented by USA, it was sufficient that both parties were on official duty as stipulated under 18 U.S.C.  § 201(c) (1) (A). This is illegal as it creates a conflict of interest between the two

Saturday, August 24, 2019

How does spaces change perceptions on things and people Essay

How does spaces change perceptions on things and people - Essay Example There are also external factors like human experience which influence these physical characteristics. In effect, these external elements provide biases on how individuals perceive things and people around them. This text sought to provide a thorough analysis on how human perception is created through the human brain and its physical senses. Moreover, this writing discussed the factors which affect how human perceives objects. One of which is the philosophy of space and time. Finally, this text also pursued to provide an answer to the question, â€Å"How does space change perceptions on things and people?†. 1. INTRODUCTION Perception dictates the behavior of people and the human interaction as a whole. It is a person’s perception that affects the person’s response in the form of his or her actions. This is the reason why understanding human behavior has always been associated with the concept of perception. Thus, the study on perception has always been evident in different fields in the social sciences like sociology, psychology, and philosophy. Generally, perceptions depend on an individual’s sensory qualities such sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste ("Problem of Perception."). However, it is the mind that has a crucial control on these sensory qualities. Philosophers further suggest that there exist a â€Å"problem of perception† that is â€Å"created by the phenomena of perceptual illusion and hallucination† ("Problem of Perception."). This means that the way people perceive things and other people is not solely based on the sensory qualities but rather dictated by psychological discernment. There are various factors that influence one’s perception on things and other people through their cognitive discernment. Space is one particular factor that affects perception on things and people. Space plays an important role in the process of perception which consequently created the concept of spatial perception or space perception. Space perception is the process of evaluating the physical orientation of objects in space which is necessary for movement in the environment and for discernment of the relationships between things (â€Å"Space Perception†). Moreover, the concept of space perception also offers insight into how people become oriented in the environment for them to survive in the form of seeking food or avoiding injury (â€Å"Space Perception†). In other words, space perception provides people â€Å"physical reality† which they use to respond in their everyday lives (â€Å"Space Perception†). Thus, this has led to much deeper researches on the role of space in the perception of people on things and other people. These research studies tend to provide in-depth analyses on the complexity of the effect of space towards perceptions. Scholars aim to answer the question, â€Å"How does space change perceptions on things and people?† 2. LITERATURE REVIEW Various related texts have already been published in the social sciences on the subject of perception. One of which is of Matthew MacDonald’s book â€Å"Your Brain: The Missing Manual.† This text offers a discussion about the human brain and the process of perception as performed by the brain. Different articles on human perception are also available such as â€Å"The Meaning of Perception† and â€Å"The Death of the Cyberflaneur† as written by Flemming Funch and Evgeny Morozov, respectively. These texts serve as good reference materials in understanding and

FACILITIES, STADIA AND THE ENVIRONMENT Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

FACILITIES, STADIA AND THE ENVIRONMENT - Essay Example Some of these international sports events uphold the principles of promoting goodwill and friendship while the Olympic Games promotes mutual interdependence and economic cooperation, as what is shown in the logo. There are lots of Olympic sports events that were inherited from the Ancient Greek Olympic. Some of these were the Javelin throw, which was originally women's game; walkathon, originated by the Greeks and Romans; and, wrestling. The Athens Olympic Stadium stands as monument of the Ancient Greek sports in the modern world. The magnificence of Athens Olympic Stadium reminds the world that at one time, the Greek nation who owns this stadium were the ones dominant in sports, and their keen interest in reviving the glory of sports as evidence by the huge budget they spent merely for the renovations of the stadium. The stadium is indeed, believed to be "the biggest and most beautiful in the world."(Rizzo, internet source) It was the Greek who introduced Olympic Games in the world which paved the way for the modern Olympic Sports events. Originally, the Olympic Games dated from the Mycenaean times and were "held in honor of Zeus."(Athens 2004) In Greek and Roman times, "the track provided for foot races."(Universal World Reference Ency. p.4661) The stadium eventually came to be oval shaped and were sometimes built against a hill in order to enable spectators to view the races from elevated seats out into the hill.(ibid) The games were originally designated "exclusively for young Greek males confronting each other for the glory and wreath of olive leafs,"(Athens 2004) because Olympia was dedicated to Zeus and was therefore sacred area for men. The venue of most sports events were at the temple of Zeus in the fields of Olympia. Thus, the early games were held in the "character of festival of sports."(History of Olympic Games) The Olympic Games were highly regarded as festival that they would even stop wars to give way for the start of festival every full moon of August. During the games, athletes usually competed naked. They originally wore shorts but "competitors deliberately lost his short so that he could run more freely during the race in 720 .C., and clothing was then abolished"(History of Olympic Games) But the Olympic Games turned to be potentially corrupt, and finally "declared the games corrupt in 393 AD. (History of Olympic Games) Emperor Theodosius II destroyed Olympia's temple that ended the games that had been going on for centuries. However in 1870, a German excavation "unearthed the beauty and magnificent statues of the classical Greek games."(History) This archeological discovery at the sacred ground of Olympia prepared the way for the revival of the Olympic Games. Through the initiation of a Frenchman by the name of Pierre de Coubertin, the Olympic Games were re-instituted and the modern Olympics were born. With the first Olympiad "celebrated two years later in Athens where an estimated 245 male athletes from 14 nations competed in the ancient Panathenaican Stadium before a large and ardent crowd."(History) Although, the American got 9 of the 12 track and field events, Greece won the most number of medals with highlights of the victory by native peasants Spiros Louis in the first marathon race. The Olympic Stadium was later named after him. Inspired by this performance and by the revival and the return of the Olympic Ga

Friday, August 23, 2019

Devising Safety Plans Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Devising Safety Plans - Assignment Example Last week, he punched her in the ribs a couple of times, resulting in bruising, which she revealed to you.She fears for her safety, though she is not yet ready to move out or leave him. The situation presented in the case is slightly complex and tricky to any counselor. Refusal or unwillingness by Jeannine to leave Robert despite series of abuse creates a serious uphill in the designing of an effective safety plan. However, it is still the responsibility of a counselor to design a workable safety plan to protect the abused client (APA). In that line, safety plan for Jeannine can begin with assessment of the situation and concerns of the client, that have to covering the extent and magnitude of the past abuses and resolutions. The next step is to persuade Jeannine to leave home with counselor providing the alternative home while assuring the client about returning to Robert after some times of treatment (Joiner et al., 2009). The reason for devising the above safety plan relates to the fact that the client’s life is in danger and must be away from the abuser. Assuring the client about returning home is to create a give-take situation to address the unwillingness to leave Robert and still achieve safety. An alternative safety plan would involve reporting to police to initiate arrest and lead to incarceration of the abuser (Jaffe & Diamond, 2011). This cannot work well in the situation considering the seemingly close attachment of the abused to the abuser that can escalate or worsen crisis experienced by the client. Scenario 2: Maria states she met Justin at a party a couple months ago. They have gone out a few times. Justin has never been to Marias house but she has been to his apartment; client states she usually meets him at a restaurant or club. Their relationship had advanced somewhat physically, but never to a sexual culmination. Imagine

Todays Justice System Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Todays Justice System - Essay Example However, there is no denying the fact that justice also happens to be a highly subjective concept, which is often susceptible to diverse interpretations. What may seem just to a person or a group may sound unjust or partial to many other. In that context, it will be interesting to have a look into the concept of justice as per Confucius, Machiavelli and Lao-tzu, to facilitate a bit better understanding of the contemporary justice system. The Confucian concept of justice is woven around the notion of 'gong', which if roughly translated means 'impartiality' (Cleary, 2000). Hence, Confucian dogmas strongly instruct the state and the justice system to resolve and solve the social conflicts and differences without resorting to any sort or form of discrimination or partiality. According to Confucius, the overall sense of direction and moral health of any society depends on the extent to which virtue and uprightness manage to permeate the social, commercial and personal spheres of life (Cleary, 2000). Therefore, the people only tend to develop a strong affinity with propriety if there prevails a sense of justice in any society. ... Therefore, the people only tend to develop a strong affinity with propriety if there prevails a sense of justice in any society. It is understood that justice to Confucius meant absolute fairness and total absence of any sort of favoritism. Thus, in the given context, the fair and equitable distribution and allocation of national resources and opportunities of growth constitute an integral part of the Confucian concept of justice (Cleary, 2000). Confucius favored a concept of justice that distinctly favored the marginalized and weaker sections of the society and ensured their well being and safety. Contrary to Confucius, the Machiavellian concept of justice is blatantly opportunistic. Machiavelli holds that the means are always subservient to the ends (Machiavelli, 1984). Thus, the direct premise of this line of reasoning is that the state or the political authority can resort to any line of action while dispensing justice, provide the delivered verdict or conclusion aid and abets the political authority in achieving its coveted and vested aims and objectives (Machiavelli, 1984). Therefore, according to the Machiavellian notion of justice, justice does not happen to be a means to disseminate a sense of fairness in the society, but a tool to further the interests of those in power. Justice merely dwindles to being a convenient tool rather then being an exalted institution and a reliable pillar of social stability. To Machiavelli, virtue and fairness meant any thing that furthered the narrow interests of the state (Machiavelli, 1984). In the Machiavellian concept of justice, pre servation and protection of the realm takes preponderance over everything else.Lao-Tzu's concept

City states Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

City states - Research Paper Example Most assuredly, a city-state enjoys unconditional sovereignty, regulating its own taxes, has its own budget, and represents itself independently at the United Nations. However, the level of governance varies from one city-state to another. The ancient Greece had various city-states that were sovereign. Other ancient city-states include Athens, Thebes, Corinth, Megara, Argos, and Sparta (Martin Web). Currently, the numbers of sovereign city-states is low and include Vatican City, Monaco, and Singapore. Indeed, Singapore was initially a member of the federal kingdom of Malaysia. However, it is now sovereign. Assuredly, Vatican City doubles as a city-state and the smallest country in the world since 1929. It entails the central city of Rome that equally serves as the headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church. Its president is the Pope (Parker 52-58). On the other hand, the boundary of Monaco doubles as the boundary of the city-state. Nevertheless, we have other city-states that are not sovereign. For example, Germany has three city-states that include Bremen, Berlin, and Hamburg (Parker 132-136). A mayor heads the three city-states. In addition, Austria has a federal state named, Vienna. The British colony of Gibraltar i s also another city-state in the United Kingdom. In Pakistan, we have a city-state called the colony of  Gwadar City. Indeed, city-states fall under sovereign states, federally administered cities, cities that are component states of federations, and cities under international supervision like Danzig. It is a hard fete to claim a country. Indeed, there is no universal way of claiming a country. However, according to the provisions of Article 1 of the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States, a state should have mandatory four qualifications (The Globe and Mail Web). These qualifications include a permanent population that defines a group

Challenges In managing diversity and benefits of diversity Term Paper

Challenges In managing diversity and benefits of diversity - Term Paper Example This concise report is primarily based on discussing the nature and meaning of diversity, intricate challenges faced by all the major organizations in managing diversity, and myriad benefits offered by this trend that is spreading fast around the globe. Diversity is basically a determined tendency to recognize and appreciate the variety of characteristics that make all the persons working for an organization significant and important, while creating such a working environment that encourages all the employees to participate in the betterment of an organization. Age, sex, racial, ethnic, religious, geographical or cultural background, language, and political affiliation are those major characteristics on which the structure of diversity is based. This is an unequivocal fact that a diverse workforce is a real asset for any organization and that is the reason why almost all the major successful companies and giant conglomerates in the world place diversity among the topmost preferences for maintaining success. Wal-Mart is one such worth mentioning example, which has running outlets around the globe. The workplace diversity initiatives introduced by Wal-Mart have majorly helped this conglomerate in achieving success and living up to the changing requirements of the customers. Nondiscriminatory treatment of the workforce is the hallmark of Wal-Mart company.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

A Critique of Chinua Achebe’s An Image of Africa Essay Example for Free

A Critique of Chinua Achebe’s An Image of Africa Essay Certainly Conrad appears to go to considerable pains to set up layers of insulation between himself and the moral universe of his history. He has, for example, a narrator behind a narrator. The primary narrator is Marlow but his account is given to us through the filter of a second, shadowy person. But if Conrads intention is to draw a cordon sanitaire between himself and the moral and psychological malaise of his narrator his care seems to me totally wasted because he neglects to hint however subtly or tentatively at an alternative frame of reference by which we may judge the actions and opinions of his characters. Although Achebe recognizes Conrads use of multiple narrators, he dismisses any intention on Conrads part of utilizing the narrators to introduce psychological depth in Heart of Darkness. I believe, however, that Conrads full objective was to establish a moral and existential tone in his novella; he accomplished this by incorporating a second narrator. Conrad introduces the narrator and his surrounding characters as they navigate the Thames River. As the narrator describes Marlow and the other Seamen the reader begins to question where Marlow stands in this social hierarchy. Conrad thus establishes a tone of uncertainty in the credibility and morality of both Marlow and the narrator. The entire novella is a retelling of Marlow’s tales in Africa, years after they had occurred, which leaves the extent of Marlow’s exaggeration and embellishment of his story up for question. 2. Disagree Joseph Conrad was a thoroughgoing racist. That this simple truth is glossed over in criticisms of his work is due to the fact that white racism against Africa is such a normal way of thinking that its manifestations go completely unremarked Achebe is not reading Conrad’s work on a symbolic level rather he superficially judges parts of the novella as racist. The novella Heart of Darkness is not a racial slur, nor is it an insulting depiction of the people of Africa in any way. It is an examination of the false pretenses the Europeans held over their assumed benevolent work in Africa. The purpose of Marlow’s story was to show the adverse effects of imperialism on white European tradesmen. Conrad is thus in no way a racist, as he set out to depict the malice of Europeans during this time period. He uses his experiences in the Congo during King Leopold of Belgium’s tyranny to show the malevolence greed instills in mankind. 3. Disagree Africa as a metaphysical battlefield devoid of all recognizable humanity, into which the wandering European enters at his peril. . . . . Can nobody see the preposterous and perverse arrogance in thus reducing Africa to the role of props for the break-up of one petty European mind? But that is not even the point. The real question is the dehumanization of Africa and Africans which this age-long attitude has fostered and continues to foster in the world. And the question is whether a novel which celebrates this dehumanization, which depersonalizes a portion of the human race, can be called a great work of art. Conrad’s Heart of Darkness is a great work of art; is it a symbolic delineation of Western covetousness and the effects materialism has on mankind. Africa is not meant to be â€Å"devoid of all recognizable humanity.† Africa is a setting which could be moved anywhere white Europeans use phony moral objectives to carry out their greed. The novella is not specific to Africa but, is a representation of the degradation of man when he works on fake moral grounds. It is for that very reason that Conrad begins his novella with Marlow’s recount of man’s historical occupations -including Roman and British sieges- and the darkness that follows all acts of greed. 4. Disagree Unfortunately his heart of darkness plagues us still. Which is why an offensive and deplorable book can be described by a serious scholar as among the half dozen greatest short novels in the English language. Although Achebe’s defensive view is reasonable as he is of African descent and feels affronted by the opinion he believes Conrad holds, he misses the overall meaning of the novella. Conrad’s Heart of Darkness is not a plague, nor should it be regretted. This novella gave insight into the shameful acts committed by Europeans in search of fame and fortune. Heart of Darkness is not a slander on the African people; it is the exposure of European cruelty and man’s madness derived from greed and feeling empowered over another. 5. Disagree â€Å"I am talking about a book which parades in the most vulgar fashion prejudices and insults from which a section of mankind has suffered untold agonies and atrocities in the past and continues to do so in many ways and many places today. I am talking about a story in which the very humanity of black people is called in question.† Humanity is questioned in Heart of Darkness but, Achebe fails to realize Conrad’s intention. Achebe focuses primarily on the depiction of the Africans in this novella and disregards the contempt Conrad holds for the imperialists. Conrad’s objective was to unmask the â€Å"prejudices and insults from which a section of mankind has suffered untold agonies and atrocities† but, not in the â€Å"vulgar fashion† Achebe describes. The humanity of Europeans is instead called in question. Conrad had witnessed firsthand how the Europeans pillaged and devastated African communities and used his experiences to illustrate the obscen ity of imperialism. 6. Disagree As a sensible man I will not accept just any travelers tales solely on the grounds that I have not made the journey myself. I will not trust the evidence even off mans very eyes when I suspect them to be as jaundiced as Conrads. And we also happen to know that Conrad was, in the words of his biographer, Bernard C. Meyer, notoriously inaccurate in the rendering of his own history. In fiction it is often the author’s idiosyncratic perspective that makes a story intriguing. Factual recounting does not arrive in a fictional book. Whether Conrad’s portrayal of imperialism in Africa was entirely accurate or an embellished version of his own existential struggles, Heart of Darkness was a landmark piece for his time period. The atrocities committed during European imperialism were not a subject of conversation but, Conrad helped to bring the issues to the surface. Conrad did not aim to offend the people of Africa; he intended to expose the Europeans of their veiled immorality.

Coke vs Pepsi strategy Essay Example for Free

Coke vs Pepsi strategy Essay Coke v. Pepsi – 5 Forces Analysis Industry concentrate produces High intensity (depends on price/advertising cost/ high number of substitutes(low calorie drinks/no carb drinks/ not carbonated drinks like orange juice) Pepsi products /Coke products New Entrants (barriers/rivalry) High Intensity-Brand recognition dominant market/ patents on style and colors Network relationships high cost of entry established such as distribution, warehouse, bottlers, and shelf-location high marketing costs Coke dominance on international market makes it hard for Pepsi to enter international markets where Coke is dominant (Mexico) Suppliers (Bargaining Power of Supplier) Medium intensity- Coke and Pepsi can and do renegotiate contracts with bottlers on prices, marketing, distribution territories, and etc. High intensity- for new entrants because the bottlers determine price of product (price takers), shelf- place is determined by retailer and less price discount control. There is a small number of important suppliers since Coke and Pepsi supported suppliers to buy other smaller suppliers to keep up with their needs. Buyers (Bargaining Power of Buyers) High Intensity- due to the high number of substitutes, health concerns, and few key buyers (fountain outlets/vending machines) E.g.) Coke and Pepsi battled for the right to sign a contract with fast food restaurants like Burger King. Substitutes ( threat of substitutes) Medium Intensity- high number of substitutes(low calorie drinks/no carb drinks/ not carbonated drinks like Orange juice /ice tea/ flavored water/etc. Low intensity – competition among other pop drink because it’s based on brand recognition.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Fauji Fertilizer Company Ffc Background Management Essay

Fauji Fertilizer Company Ffc Background Management Essay In 2002, FFC acquired ex Pak Saudi Fertilizers Limited Urea Plant, situated at Mirpur Mathelo. This acquisition, worth PKR 8,151 million, is one of the largest industrial sector transactions in Pakistan to date. Today, FFC has three plants with a combined capacity of 5,770 MTPD of prilled urea. It is one of the thirty biggest companies of Pakistan, represented via the KSE-30.2 Along with being one of the largest urea producers in the country, FFC is involved in training manpower and providing turnaround services within Pakistan and in the Middle East. A timeline of the evolution of FFC ensues.3 1978: Incorporation of the Company. 1982: Commissioning of Plant I, Goth Machhi with annual capacity of 570 thousand tonnes. 1991: Listed with Karachi and Lahore Stock Exchanges. 1992: Through the De-Bottle Necking (DBN) programme, the production capacity of Plant I was increased to 695 thousand tonnes per year. 1992: Listed with Islamabad Stock Exchange. 1993: Commissioning of Plant II, Goth Machhi with annual capacity of 635 thousand tonnes of Urea. 1993: Initial investment in Fauji Fertilizer Bin Qasim Limited, a DAP and Urea manufacturing concern; currently stands at Rs 4.75 billion representing 50.88% equity share. 1997: With achievement of Quality Management System certification in Goth Machhi, FFC became the first fertilizer plant in Pakistan to achieve this distinction. 2002: FFC acquired ex Pak Saudi Fertilizers Limited (PSFL) Urea Plant situated in Mirpur Mathelo (Plant III) with annual capacity of 574 thousand tonnes of urea, which was the largest industrial sector transaction in Pakistan at that time. 2003: FFC obtained certification of Occupational Health Safety Assessment Series, OHSAS-18001:1999. 2004: With investment in Pakistan Maroc Phosphore, Morocco S.A. of Rs 706 million, FFC has equity participation of 12.5% in PMP. 2008: Investment of Rs 1.5 billion in Fauji Cement Company Limited, currently representing 6.79% equity participation. 2008: DBN of Plant III was executed and commissioned successfully for enhancement of capacity to 718 thousand tonnes annually. 2010: Investment in FFC Energy Limited, Pakistans first wind power electricity generation project. 2011: SAP ERP implemented in the Company, improving business processes by reducing time lags and duplication of work. Vision Pakistan is a burgeoning market, not just in terms of head count, but also in advancement in the way agri-business is now carried out. Gone are the days of antiquated fertilizers, instead, only the best is now sought. FFC foresees this market to be extremely lucrative. It wants customers to benefit from its palette of product offerings, both domestic and outside the home country. It seeks to be thought of as not just the best there is, but also as a conscientious and caring company. FFC aims to be positioned as a very well-rounded organization in the minds of all its stakeholders, whether external or internal. Its value chain has quality at its core. It strives to be successful via total integration of streamlined processes, incomparable products, driven and motivated workforce, and extraordinary service, all the while staying ahead of the competition and continuously scanning the market. Corporate Strategy Our flexible and dynamic corporate strategy strives for enhancing customer satisfaction by adding value over the long run. We aim at creating value for the stakeholders by maintaining and improving our competitive position in the market. This is achieved by focusing on our sustainable competitive advantage that is derived by continuously assembling and exploiting an appropriate combination of resources and capabilities in response to the changing market conditions. Our organizational culture is one of our most fundamental competitive advantages. We have built and preserved an innovation-adept culture, a culture that promotes transparency and accountability through honesty, integrity and diligence in our dealing with employees, customers, financial market, government, regulatory authorities, and all the other stakeholders. Diversification in business line is also being considered. Our unique corporate strategy gets aligned with the resource allocation system and flows down to the oper ational levels, thus ensuring its implementation at all levels along with the achievement of the intended results.6 FFC focuses on value addition. This means that everyone at the company tries to make each subsequent year better than the previous one. This enhances the value creation process. For this, the corporate strategy is characterised by flexibility and innovation, which are also the core components of the culture of the organization. FFC prides itself on having been able to develop a culture which is innovative, transparent, and honest. Innovation allows FFC to be able to anticipate and prepare for change, by aligning its internal strengths with the external opportunities. Transparency enables FFC to satisfy every stakeholders requisites, since nothing is swept under the rug. This promotes diligent behaviour and accountability at all levels. Honesty is a trait which is valued from the very top to the very bottom of the hierarchy at FFC. It is this particular combination of all the above that the culture is both employee centric and customer centric. The human element, be it in the form of a worker/manager or a customer, is highly valued at FFC. Therefore, while the former is kept abreast of everything that goes on in the organization, the latter is assured of premium quality product and premium quality service every single time. Organization is all about teamwork. FFC is aware of this, which is why it demands uncompromising integrity and hard work from all individuals, so that the sum is greater than the parts. There is mutual understanding, trust, and interdependence. In return, FFC has a very worker friendly environment. Commitments within the company as well as with business partners, suppliers and customers are valued and kept. FFC is founded upon the principles7 of à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Honesty in communication; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Excellence in products and services; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Consistency and synchronisation in words and actions; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Compassion in relationships within the micro and mega environments of the organization; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Fairness to all stakeholders through adherence to laws, regulations and policies. FFCs Financial Health Fauji Fertilizer Company (FFC) enjoys stable gas supply from Mari gas fields because they come under Fauji Foundations ownership. This translates into a huge competitive advantage over other fertilizer manufacturers, which are linked with the Sui-based networks. Financial highlights of FFC for the current year appear in the table below. These are for the period ended September 30, 2012.8 2012 (Rs 000) 2011 (Rs 000) Turnover 29,208,413 36,321,157 Cost of sales -22,778,306 -22,565,347 Gross Profit 6,430,107 13,755,810 Administrative Expenses -677,700 -550,247 Other Income 695,185 1,092,089 Taxation -991,876 -3,721,386 Profit after Tax 2,130,481 7,169,794 Earnings per share (Rs.) 2.28 7.68 Source: FFCs Annual Report for the Third Quarter, 2012 Revenue increased by 49% during the first half of 2012, due to high urea prices and sales of imported DAP. FFC urea sales exceeded 500,000 tons in June, which made up for declining sales in the first five months of 2012. In total, urea sales were up by 6% to 1.2 million tons in the period under review.9 Urea prices remained volatile from April to June 2012, as the GoP decided on a price slash for May, along with an announcement of reversal of Rs 50 per bag in June. This was much needed so as to be able to compete with cheaper imported fertilizer, due to government subsidy on it. FFCs urea plant underwent 30% gas curtailment last year, which was ten percent more than that decided for the plants operating on the Sui gas network. This resulted in an extended shutdown of 27 days of the urea plant, and a decline of 17% in urea production, on a YoY basis. The scenario on the DAP front was opposite to the one on the urea front. In spite of the gas curtailment, FFC managed to operate the DAP plant at a level which exceeded 2010s production level of 0.66 million tons. Due to the imposition of Gas Infrastructure and Development Surcharge (GIDS), gross profit margin was 47% during April to June 2012, a decline of 12.52 percentage points on a yearly basis. This was also exacerbated by the net reduction of Rs 100 per bag of urea during the same period. Other income was unable to support the bottom line as it declined by 15%, mainly due to lack of dividend earning from subsidiary Fauji Fertilizer Bin Qasim Limited. Financial charges increased by 36% which can be explained by the increase in short-term borrowings. However, long-term borrowings have declined, and the Company was able to have a very healthy debt to equity ratio (19% in 2011 as compared to 49% in 2006). Debt increased due to the Companys decision to revamp its urea and DAP plants several years back. FFC has been able to repay its long-term obligations because of its sustainable revenue stream. 10 IT Vision The IT Strategy at FFC shall complement our Corporate Vision by business transformation through technology innovation, introducing best practices and connecting our processes for timely information and optimized performance to succeed in our endeavours.11 Information Systems SAP project: the implementation of SAP ERP is finally complete, with the transformation from Legacy to SAP system gone smoothly at all locations. BMS: a Building Management System (BMS) is a centralized computer based control system, linking equipment for ventilation, fire, security, power, etc. onto one platform, which enables timely and coordinated response to different facilities at the same time. Also, the integrated end-to-end system optimizes energy consumption. Electronic recruitment: FFC launched an online career portal in accordance with its HR department, and development of the portal by its IT division. All this has been done to make the recruiting process efficient, and to match individuals to jobs. SAP implementation support: IT at all locations provided support to SAP users in learning to use and adapt to SAP. This support comprised of trainings, onsite and offsite support, and troubleshooting. Technical support was also provided to help resolve outstanding issues, in alliance with functional teams at SAP Project Office. Information Security Penetration testing at branch sites: the information security department contributed hugely in that it secured its information network post SAP implementation. It assessed the potential threats which could pose a security risk towards the FFC network and/or the SAP system. Security awareness sessions at branch sites and the Head Office: the importance of information security was imparted to employees everywhere via awareness sessions. Some of the key points covered in these sessions were security risks, threat vectors, hacking trends, etc. More than 200 employees of FFC attended these sessions at their respective sites. Business Model Fauji Fertilizer Company has several important factors at the heart of its business. These have been summed up in a business model, with three components, at FFC. Growth Drivers FFCs growth is primarily driven by exponential expansion in sales revenue, powered by strong demand for our product and effective distribution network all over the country. Efficiency enhancement is our long term goal. We continuously seek opportunities to improve efficiency of our business processes to optimise costs, utilising less to produce more. Our sales are largely cash based, which gives us the margin to effectively utilise available cash resources to fulfil the Companys working capital requirements, and hence minimise external funding requirements resulting in reduced finance costs. 12 What fuels growth at FFC? The retained earnings, which are the result of ever increasing demand for fertilizer. The Company is cost effective, which allows it to reduce dependency on external funding. Our Key Assets Human capital is by far our most treasured asset, directly affecting performance of the Companys business processes, ensuring success every year. Among our most valuable assets is our brand name Sona, which is the soul behind our existence, growth and prosperity. We are continuously investing in our production facilities to enhance operational efficiency and fuel the key growth drivers. Our extensive distribution network extends to all provinces of the Country, ensuring maximum market presence.13 What makes FFC click? Its workforce. Its brand name, Sona, which helped in putting FFC on the map. Investment in production facilities to have lean operations. Strong distribution. How We Leverage Our Assets Our assets in turn are leveraged by our management excellence and our consumer centric approach. Our strategies are focused around consumer satisfaction and quality perfection. The pursuit of excellence in every sphere of operation is our aim which ensures continued success. Our farsighted management strategies are focused on development of our key assets which form the foundation for future growth.14 Success at FFC results from managerial excellence, focus on the customer, no compromise on quality, and a long term orientation. REVIEW OF TECHNOLOGY USED SAP ERP SAP AG (Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing) is a German multinational software corporation, which makes enterprise software to manage business operations, customer relations, operations, and record keeping. SAP ERP15 (Enterprise Resource Planning) is an integrated software solution that utilizes and consolidates information from all business functions and departments in an organization. It provides solutions for the following aspects of any business, with the modules in bullet points: SAP ERP Financials Accounts payable/Accounts receivable Financial reporting Risk management/Regulatory compliance Cash flow monitoring Travel management SAP ERP Human Capital Management HR and payroll Labour force analysis Placement/Recruitment and training/Talent management SAP ERP Operations Procurement and logistics Product development and manufacturing Sales and service Operations analytics Implementation On January 10th, 2011, one of the biggest feathers in FFCs cap was the implementation of the SAP, under its transition to an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. Abacus Consulting was its technical partner and consultant. Initially, SAP was used in tandem with FFCs old system, Legacy, but eventually, the latter was completely done away with. FFC holds the distinction of pioneering the introduction of an ERP system in Pakistan.16 FFCs management went ahead with the idea of SAP implementation believing that it would create value addition in departments of marketing, supply chain, finance, accounting, human resource, and procurement, amongst others. The SAP implementation at FFC was carried out in several phases. Despite the management being satisfied with the entire revamping program, the system is not without its drawbacks. The most crucial of these is that SAP cannot be operated optimally until the user has complete command over its functions. Therefore, consultants and/or specialists are required if SAP has to be fully utilized for its benefits at such an early stage of its installation. SAP ERP consists of several modules and sub-modules, an outline of which appears above. The software takes the information, data, statistics, etc. from all the modules, and combines them to facilitate the organizations decision making, process streamlining, human effort expended, through product design and development, production and inventory control, human resources, finance and accounting. This overall procedure is known as enterprise resource planning, and it is carried out on a companywide scale. If this procedure is carried out correctly, any organization can transcend from its old system to this fully integrated software. The magnitude of benefits to be reaped is huge, e.g. efficient business processes, inventory reduction, and lead time reduction, to name a few. Updates in SAP only need to be done once, and they automatically get implemented company-wide. It provides real time information, reducing the possibility of redundancy errors, shortages, and higher TATs. Areas like s upply chain, procurement, finance and accounting stand to benefit greatly. On the other end of the spectrum, there are the negative aspects. Firstly, the software is anything but cheap. Secondly, it is not just expensive; it is very technical, sophisticated, and intricate. Companies face problems while implementing SAP ERP software, for example, failing to be specific about operational objectives, no orientation towards change, flexibility, and futuristic perspective, and lack of a learning organization. The following sections detail some of the major advantages and disadvantages of using SAP.17, 18 Advantages of SAP Integration: SAP does not focus on or improve individual performance, so the goal of using SAP should be getting benefits from integration. This reduces erroneous data entry and overlapping entries. Flexibility: SAP allows organizations to create their own framework of operations within the SAP structure. This framework dictates issues like access levels of employees, signoffs required at which level, flagged and correct transactions, etc. For example, FFC has the authority to determine which employee can access what area in the SAP structure. Analytical software: apart from being able to keep track of various activities going on simultaneously, both short- and long-term, SAP has in-built analytical features. For example, it can monitor the value chain, and then evaluate when the next shipment or order is due, and time it accordingly. Monitoring, evaluation, decision making, and execution, are all enabled via the usage of SAP, all at once. Disadvantages of SAP Expensive: being able to utilize SAP optimally entails software, hardware, implementation, consulting, training, hiring specialists, programmers, repair and maintenance staff, etc. Employees have to be trained in those aspects of the software that they have access to. The story does not end here, because trainers might leave after training personnel, but the repair and maintenance experts need to be kept on retainer. Other ongoing costs include those incurred for software up gradation. If IT experts or consultants are outsourced, even that increases the labour costs of the organization overall. Hidden costs arise along the way of SAP systems integration projects. SAP projects are expensive enough to begin with. Add to that the burden of additional unanticipated costs, and the corporation can say goodbye to a high ROI. A common example of such a cost is those work items that were not part of the original project plan. These include custom modifications, applying more resources to areas of the implementation that were outside the project plan, etc. Detrimental to user accuracy: software does not have the ability to detect errors, and SAP is no exception. It also falls prey to the carried-forward error. The employees know that once a wrong entry has been made, it will be a part of the entire database of information. This makes employees/users more susceptible to make mistakes. Complexity: due to this feature of SAP, organizations spread out the implementation over a period of time, rather than all at once. The complete implementation might take several years, which also enhances employees skill set in pieces. The time taken for complete integration might become so exhaustive that the managements focus on post-integration planning be pushed into oblivion. The management might just settle for the system integration, and unconsciously avoid what is coming after the integration. Management: project managers, in some instances, have to deal with problems and provide solutions, instead of the users who logged in the original complaints into SAP. The software calls for scope management, which not every employee is capable of. ORACLE E-BUSINESS SUITE Oracle Corporation is an American multinational specializing in developing software for enterprises, with a focus on database management systems. It also has software for enterprise resource planning (ERP), customer relationship management (CRM) and supply chain management (SCM), to name a few.19 The company offered software for the financial aspect of businesses in late 1980s. Now however, its product palette is not just limited to ERP, CRM, or SCM, instead it reaches into areas like warehouse management, human resource, procurement, product lifecycle management, etc. Expansion and growth of Oracles application software business has come about through acquisitions and in-house developments. Oracle resorted to product bundling when it came up with its Oracle E-Business Suite Release 12 (Oracle EBS R12). This version keeps Oracles core database management system technology intact, and the E-Business Suite branches out into several product lines.20 Oracle CRM Oracle Financials Oracle HRMS Oracle Mobile Supply Chain Applications Oracle Order Management Oracle Procurement Oracle Project Portfolio Management Oracle Quotes Oracle Transportation Management Oracle Warehouse Management Systems Oracle Inventory Oracle Enterprise Asset Management FERTILIZER INDUSTRY REVIEW For many developing countries, the focus is on economic recovery after the financial crisis of 2007-08. However, issues of increasing population and rising food prices have made food security a big concern for policy makers as well. The latter two issues are equally, if not more, important for the underdeveloped countries, and Pakistan is no exception. Pakistan is an agro-based economy. The agriculture sector has provided the impetus for economic growth. This can be observed by the fact that it provides employment to almost 45% of the total labour force, in one way or the other. It is a seasonal sector, so there are jobs all-year round. On the reverse side of this picture, income generated from this sector fuels demand for products made by other sectors (industrial and tertiary). This interdependence, so to speak, is indicative of the importance of this sector for Pakistan. Almost 21% of GDP is contributed by the agricultural sector.21 Some major crops and their contribution appear below: Crops Production (kt) 2009/10 Production CAGR 2000/01 2009/10 Yield (Kt/Acre) 2009/10 Gross Value Addition of Major Crops Wheat 23,864 2.60% 1.07 39% Cotton 2,159 1.90% 0.28 22% Rice 6,883 4.20% 0.97 18% Sugarcane 49,373 1.30% 21.2 10% Source: Economic Survey of Pakistan 2009/10 The agriculture sector of Pakistan was adversely affected due to the floods approximately two and a half years ago. They had damaged around 30% of the agricultural area, and resulted in crop losses worth USD 2.5 billion. This flood damage also affected the fertilizer sector. This is due to the evident strong inter linkages between the agriculture sector and the fertilizer industry.22 Crop-wise damage and the area affected are shown in the table below. Crops Affected Area (mn acres) Area Affected Cotton 1.3 17% Rice 1.4 23% Sugarcane 0.4 16% Source: Fertilizers in Pakistan. Demand, Production and Imports. By Eqan Ali Khan, Business Head, Fert and Agri Commodities; Mar 30, 2011 The fertilizer industry in Pakistan is basically an oligopoly. This oligopoly is characterised by 4 major players in the market: Fauji Fertilizer Company, Fauji Fertilizer Bin Qasim Limited, Engro Fertilizer, and Dawood Hercules Fertilizer. A new and fast growing addition is Fatima Fertilizer, of the Fatima Group. If we look at the production of urea by the four companies respective contribution, FFC and FFBL dominate by producing 48% of the total, Engro produces 15%, and Dawood Hercules produces 6%. Almost 20% is imported and distributed through NFML. When we look at the production of phosphorus, a similar pattern emerges. FFC and FFBL stand at 47%, Engro at 28%, Agritech at 2%, RG at 1% and around 22% is imported. C:Documents and SettingsAdministratorDesktopUntitled.png Source: Fertilizers in Pakistan. Demand, Production and Imports. By Eqan Ali Khan, Business Head, Fert and Agri Commodities; Mar 30, 2011 Fertilizer production is concentrated in nitrogenous fertilizers, which comprises 85% of all fertilizers produced in the country. Although other types of fertilizers are also produced in Pakistan, the main reason for this concentration on nitrogenous fertilizers is that its main raw material, i.e. natural gas, is cheaply available in the country. The raw material for other fertilizers such as potassium and phosphate has to be imported.23 Fertilizer is Pakistans most important and expensive input in agricultural production. The contribution that the use of balanced fertilizer makes towards increasing yield varies from around 30 to 60 percent in different crops production. Almost all of Pakistans soil is deficient in nitrogen (N), 80 to 90 percent is deficient in phosphorus (P), and 30 percent is lacking in potassium (K).24 Land used for just one type of crop is facing declining fertility, for the obvious reason that only certain nutrients are being used. When these land holdings are not used in crop rotation, the soil does not get replenished, and productivity for future crops declines. Nutrient Actual (Kg/Acre) Recommended (Kg/Acre) Nitrogen 41 41 Phosphorous 9 20.5 Potassium 0.4 10.3 Source: Fertilizers in Pakistan. Demand, Production and Imports. By Eqan Ali Khan, Business Head, Fert and Agri Commodities; Mar 30, 2011 From July 2011 to March 2012, domestic production of fertilizer decreased by 1.4%. This was the result of the industry experiencing a curtailment in the supply of natural gas, which is the main raw material for producing urea, therefore some urea plants produced less than their production capacity. However, import of urea made up for this slack, increasing the supply of fertilizer by 16.3%. On the consumption side however, this increase in supply was met by a reduction of 4.9%. Screen Shot 2012-11-19 at 11.55.38.png Source: Fertilizers in Pakistan. Demand, Production and Imports. By Eqan Ali Khan, Business Head, Fert and Agri Commodities; Mar 30, 2011 Two major reasons for this reduced fertilizer consumption was the heavy and destructive rains in Sindh province, and the price hike faced by all fertilizers. The price of urea went up by 81.4% in July-March, 2011-12 (as compared to the same period of the last fiscal year). The prices of DAP, CAN and NP also increased by 38.8%, 75.5%, and 45.7%, respectively, over the same period last year.25 Fertilizer Pre-GST Co. to Dealer Transfer Prices (Rs/Ton) Taxation Impact Post GST Co. to Dealer Transfer Prices (Rs/Ton) Urea 20,400 13.20% 23,100 DAP 66,025 19.14% 78,660 MOP 48,200 17.05% 56,420 Source: Engro Analytics The actual price which the dealer faces is truly seen after the tax burden has been accounted for. The differential is huge, as the figures in the table above show. Pakistan is able to produce approximately 7 million tons of urea annually currently. Out of this total, capacity of 4 million tons is dependent upon gas from Mari gas fields, and the other 3 million tons on Sui Northern Gas Pipeline (SNGPL) and Sui Southern Gas Company (SSGC). During 2011, all these plants produced a little less than 5 million tons of urea.26 In the past, gas supply to fertilizer units linked to SNGPL was curtailed in winter. However, last year, units receiving gas from Mari faced 20% curtailment, and the ones getting gas from SGGPL and SSGC faced mandatory closure up to 60 days. In 2012, this mandatory closure is expected to exceed 90 days. The sorry state of affairs can be assessed by the fact that from January 1 till October 31, 2011, fertilizer plants on the SNGPL network received the equivalent of just 3.5 days of gas per week, relative to other sectors, which received 4 to 5 days of gas a week. For the fertilizer industry, gas is an input without which it cannot manufacture urea, whereas for other sectors, it is not an absolute necessity.27 If current levels of gas curtailment are adhered to, industry experts expect urea production to be around 4.8 million tons during 2012. However, this is an optimistic number. Realistically, units will probably have difficulty in achieving even this production level, mainly due to the widening gap between demand and supply of gas as projected by the government. It is pertinent to bear in mind that even if subsidy on gas were to be completely abolished by the Government, Fauji Foundation has under its ownership and control Mari gas fields. In a manner of speaking, backward vertical integration exists, so any adverse change in regulations regarding gas subsidy will not be detrimental to FFCs operations. With the demand for urea forecasted to be 6.3 million tons in 2012, the shortfall is expected to be around 1.5 million tons. This is a very bleak scenario for the economy, since internal capacity is well able to meet this demand. Externally, when imports will be resorted to, they will erode the countrys foreign exchange by USD 600 million, at the very least, based on current prices, and may be even more costly if international prices rise. It is expected that any hike in crude oil prices will automatically escalate urea prices in the international markets. Growing tension between the United States and Iran has already initiated a spiraling increase in global crude oil prices.28 Under consideration is the possibility that urea manufacturers should exercise the LNG import option to meet the shortfall in gas supply. There exist two schools of thought regarding this debate. One says that running plants on LNG is not feas