Thursday, November 28, 2019
Digital photography, which is also called ?digital imaging' since it does not involve the use of film started in the sixties. The original development of the technology is at NASA when they required that exploration spacecraft, unable to return to earth, to be capable of sending back pictures of their voyages. The digital camera, like the standard film camera, uses a lens to focus the image on a sensor. The usual film camera depends on a film to capture the image but the digital relies on a sensor, either CCD or CMOS . As light hits the pixels that make up the sensor, it is converted to a current that is then sent to the ?Analogue to Digital Converter' or A-D converter. When a photo is digitised, its colours are sampled from the sensor and converted to binary format. The smallest image element sampled is called a pixel. The digital image is like a map, where the information about the colour value of a pixel is understood as co-ordinates on the map. When the map is converted back to an image, the pixel goes to its position and colour in relation to the other pixels making up the image and the co-ordinates given to it. This is how the camera maps out the image. From the A-D converter, algorithms are then applied to the data converting it into a digital image. Sometimes, the size of the data generated by an image sensor can be very large. The larger the number of pixels making up the picture, the higher the resolution of the image and the larger the size of the data of the image. To deal with these large files, most digital cameras compress the data, as to make the size of the data of the image smaller. The way the data representing an image is electronically written is called an ?image file format'. There are many different image file formats. Several of them use compression techniques to reduce the storage space required by the bitmap image data. These compression methods are classified in two ways: whether or not they remove detail and colour from the image. ?Lossless' methods compress image data without removing any detail from the image, while 'lossy' methods compress images by removing detail and colour depth. One of the more common standards of compression for digital cameras is the JPEG format. The larger the image, and the more precise the sampling process, the larger the final digital file will be. To make the use of digitised photographs more utilised for transmission over Internet or for storing on a disk, algorithms have been constructed to decrease the size of data that is used in representing the image. When the process is reversed, the image is returns. Compression algorithms are useful when you need storage space, or to speed up data transmission on the Internet or anywhere. Without the JPEG format, the Internet would be much slower as this format is extensively used. To get large savings in the image files, many compression systems delete some of the information the file contains. The object is to make a compressed version of the image, so that once restored it is as close of a match to the original image as possible. Many different algorithms have been developed to compress file sizes. Lossy compression is better than lossless because it can compress an image that can be as little as five percent of the original size. Lossy is where information from the image file is removed and lossless is just compressing the file. The JPEG format was created specifically for the transmission and storage of photographic images. It is a lossy compression algorithm and it is made to remove different amounts of the data that originally made up the image. JPEG compression is designed to take advantage of a particular aspect of human visual perception: the fact that we perceive small colour changes less accurately than we perceive small changes in brightness. The most important advantage coming from JPEG compression is the enormous reduction of file size. For digital cameras, this makes it possible to store a more images in the same amount of memory. JPEG compression makes it possible to send high quality images
Research Proposal REDUCING THE TIME AND EXPENSE CREATING PROPOSALS PRESENTED TO: Jill Marhefka Professor of Business Research, BSAD 400 . Tracy E. Baker October 11th, 1999 TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 BACK GROUND INFORMATION 2 PROBLEM AND OBJECTIVES 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 4 ESTIMATES OF COST AND SCHEDULE 6 QUALIFICATION OF REASEACHER 8 APPENDIX 9 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY AUTOMATING TO MEET THE NEEDS OF XYZ CONSTRUCTION COMPANY Proposals are extremely important tools in construction, sales and marketing efforts but they also pose some serious challenges. These are some of the specific problems our company is facing: ? Inefficient delivery of information where and when it's needed ? Lack of tools to help construction sales people to work productively ? Difficulty in completing and delivering quality proposals quickly ? Construction sales people are experiencing too much desk time and not enough face time as they wrestle with the challenge of preparing proactive proposals ? Inconsistent looking proposals that contain conflicting and sometimes incorrect information The main goal of this project is to research a specific need expressed by members of the Proposal Development Group and Sales Department, that is the need for an industry specific Proposal Software Program. As outlined in the proposal, this is to be accomplished through significant interaction between the researchers, Information Management department and experts in the Proposal Development Group and Sales Department. This type of cooperative agreement is seen as fundamental to the success of all projects. BACKGROUND INFORMATION THE POSITIVE IMPACT OF A PROPOSAL WRITER PROGRAM ON XYZ COMPANY XYZ Company has generated 1,000 proposals (of which 30 percent are less complex; 70 percent more complex) during FY 1999. Members of the XYZ's Proposal Group have spent approximately 46,000 hours in proposal writing! This however, does not include revisions made due to addendums to R.F.P.s. Below is a summary of cost incurred by the XYZ Company through FY 1999. It should be noted that XYZ Company has generated hard copies of every proposal written for not only the clientele but also our Sales Executives, in order to keep them abreast of changes. This was to ensure that the Sales Executive could respond to all questions as concisely and efficiently as possible. Proposals Written Proposal Addendums Time to write one proposal 16 hours?less complex 60 hours?complex Approximately 1 hour less complex 12 hours complex Overhead charge rate for a proposal writer's time $45.00/hr $45.00/hr Number of proposals / addendums written each year 300 less complex 700 complex 200? Per 1000 proposals Approximate total costs $2,160,000.00+ $391,500.00 PROBLEM AND OBJECTIVES THE POSITIVE IMPACT OF A PROPOSAL WRITER PROGRAM ON XYZ COMPANY Problem Statement The proposal processes in the construction industry is intensive. Many tasks are highly repetitive, and may require significant F.T.E. (full time equivalent) man-hours to produce. Many jobs require numerous revisions when posed with addendums to the RFP by owners who are uncertain of their wants and needs. The Management Problem Is As Stated Below: Can we develop a software package that will meet the guidelines of the Proposal Development group and the Sales department? Objectives: (1.0) To ensure the potential system will function with the data structures used within our system. (2.0) To develop a software program which will formulate faster responses to R.F.P.s. (3.0) To create a well-designed system which is easy to learn. (4.0) To determine if a pricing engine is needed within the data structure. (5.0) To asses the need for a sales and marketing database. (6.0) To evaluate the need to develop a clientele database. (7.0) To investigate the potential of reduction of overall paper usage. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY THE POSITIVE IMPACT OF A PROPOSAL WRITER PROGRAM ON XYZ COMPANY Research Design The Information Gathered will be representative of the Information Management group, the Proposal Development group, and the Sales Executives. The Information management group will be surveyed independently from the Proposal Development group and the Sales Executives, however, there will be a set of questions on each of the two surveys that are identical. This will be detailed in the Proposed Data Collection section. All information Gathered will be utilized in the evaluation of the potential for the development and or feasibility of development concerning the afore mentioned proposal software. Proposed Data Collection Procedures To ensure the potential system will function with the data structures used within our system, and to create a well-designed system, which is easy to learn, Information management will be surveyed independently of the Proposal Development group and the Sales Executives. To determine if a pricing engine is needed
Sunday, November 24, 2019
support groups essays Participants who attended a support group were surveyed on why they were attending support group, what their participation level is, and what their expectation from the support group is. There were many different trends that were found among the three different groups, Alcoholic Anonymous, disabled workers, and heterosexuals with the Aides Virus. Some of the responses were similar, and others were attending the meetings for different reasons. The experience of illness is a profoundly social one. Suffering elicits intense emotions and hence the desire to talk to others. Through interpersonal exchanges, patients develop an understanding of their illness: They may talk to friends, relatives and professionals about what their diagnosis and treatment may entail. Over the course of their particular illness, relationships are strained or broken, and new ones become valuable, such as those with doctors, nurses, or physical therapists. For some, the condition itself constitutes a dangerous secret that erects a barrier between themselves and their support network. Thus, patients experiences of illness both influence, and are influenced by, the social fabric that surrounds them. There are many different reasons people choose to attend support groups. It may be they are reaching our for comfort they cannot find other places, or because they feel the network of friends they have met through the support groups is the only people who truly understand what they are going through, or it may be because they have been ordered to do so by some outside authority. Whatever the reasons may be, the need and outcome of people who attend support groups is a necessity for those searching for support and guidance. Many years ago Leiverman, Yalom, and Miles (1973) developed an empirical models to study encounter-group leader behavior. An analysis of leader behaviors and participant outcomes revealed a substantial and statistically signifi...
Apology- Plato essays Socrates is a doer of evil and corrupter of the youth, and he does not believe in the gods of the state. He has other new divinities of his own.(Apology 41) In The Apology, by Plato, these are the accusations brought against Socrates during his trial. Socrates claims that he did not consciously corrupt the youth of Athens, and he gives many reasons why he is not at fault for their actions. In Socrates defense to the jury, he claims that by looking at the facts, the jury will see that Meletus is accusing him of something that is not his fault. Socrates states that he is not responsible for the corruption of the youth, because he was not aware that he was leading them astray. Meletus and Socrates do not have the same definition of corruption. Meletus claims that what Socrates is doing is wrong. Meletus views the corruption of the youth as Socrates telling the children to believe in certain gods contrary to what gods the public believes in. Socrates says that he is not corrupting the youth, because that would mean he was harming them and he knows that he is not. Socrates defense is well-thought out and logical. Socrates asks Meletus a question, Meletus answers and then Socrates moves on to the next question to support his claim that he is not a villainous misleader of youth (Apology 41). Socrates thinks that simply presenting a point to the jury, without convincing them is enough. Socrates tries proving his case to the jury by questioning Meletus about his beliefs. This passage is essential in his defense to the jury. Socrates asks Meletus, Then every Athenian improves and elevates them, all with the exception of myself. I alone am their corrupter? Is that what you say? Meletus answers by saying, Most definitely (Apology 42). In this instance, Socrates had made a mockery of Meletus by having him state to the jury that Socrates, alone, is the corrupter of yout...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Improving Decision Making, DB - Essay Example efuted that the reason why people often answer not-so-confidently on these questions was the fact that nations or states are all capable of conducting such actions. That is, since the choice of states to be answered are limited only to the Soviet Union and the US, the questions cannot really accurately determine that indeed, people cannot determine the difference between Soviet and American political actions. It is also possible that respondents may have thought of another state or nation which can be applied in the context or scenarios given. Thus, the first activity demonstrated how reasoning and decision-making are multi-faceted. While there are specific answers to challenges or problems, there are different ways in the manner by which the individual arrived at the answer. That is, the individual may have guessed correctly that for both scenarios, s/he identified the correct nation/state. However, his/her assessment in arriving at the answer may have been contributed by the fact that the facts of both scenarios are unique or somewhat identified to a single country only. For example, the use of the term Ã¢â¬Å"partyÃ¢â¬ in the first scenario signified the Communist party Soviet Union was popularly known for in the late 20th century. Similarly, the 1960s was a period of invasion and active political expansion and military movement for the US. Thus, responses for both scenarios were not motivated by the actions of the countries alone, but on the facts of the scenariosÃ¢â¬âthe association of the facts of each scenari o to a particular country. This finding from the first activity is reflected in the second activity, which discussed the issue of Ã¢â¬Å"calibration.Ã¢â¬ From the first activity, it was shown how decision-making cannot be done solely on the basis of one criterion alone; instead, decision-making is composed of different facets that influence the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s decision to choose one solution over another one. In the second activity, the exercise
THE RITE OF SPRING by Igor Stravinsky - Essay Example So on 23rd February at 7:30 pm a huge crowd gathered in Kent Concert Hall in the Chase Fine Arts Centre to watch the performance. Moreover 130 student musicians also participated from Utah State and the University of Utah. There was a joint performance of Utah Philharmonic and USU symphony Orchestra of Igor StravinskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Rite of spring. Stravinsky is the most influential figure in the musical history and people admire him a lot. His compositions were quite rhythmic and clearly depicted links with Russia.StravinskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËRite of SpringÃ¢â¬â¢ was composed in 1913 which greatly inspired the people and grew popular among the people and in 20th century it turned to be the most influential piece of music. In the end one of the young maiden was chosen by her luck to dance herself to death. After listening to his compositions, one can easily link the past and present of musical history. So the orchestral concert was held in the memory of this great composer welcoming the upcoming spring with open arms. People from distant places travelled to attend this festival. The audience were given 3D glasses while entering the hall. On stage there was a performance of full orchestra and a dancer who was surrounded by invisible 3D stereoscopic cameras. This stunned the whole crowd for a while. The first half of the concert presented a multimedia examination of Igor StravinskyÃ¢â¬â¢s two-part ballet; later his images were also projected. His biography and life history was also presented to make the people know about the background of this popular man and how he began composing in 1913. His life history influenced the listeners. After an intermission, the concert transpired. This was a perfect way to celebrate spring season. The groundbreaking nature of his music, electrified the listeners following the RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s folk and classical traditions. The music had depth and was entirely unique and soothing for the listeners. The music captured the attention of crowd which ended in
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Philosophy Principles of sound reasoning - Essay Example The principle of non-contradiction is a principle that is applicable in philosophical reasoning: It asserts that it is not correct to posit that something is correct while at the same time claiming it is correct. The discussion will attempt to explicate whether some of the commonly used tautologies are contradictory in nature. Additionally, it will explore on whether some tautologies are logically equivalent as well as provision of insights whether some contradictions are contingent. Moreover, the discussion will focus on elaboration of some contingents and determine whether they are logically equivalent in nature. The corpus of logically equivalent tautologies entails a scenario where two different forms of statements have similar truth. On the other hand, the concept of tautology exists in compound statements that are usually true in nature no matter what circumstance it is presented. It is a fact that some tautologies are logically equivalent. It is a fact that some tautologies are usually logically equivalent. For example; this can be presented in the Venn diagram below: The Venn diagram below indicates a scenario where A represents animals with mammary glands and B represents all mammals. The point of intersection represents A&B; meaning A can be B and B can be A. In this regard the first premise indicating that all mammals have mammary glands, which is valid. The second statement is also valid indicating that any animal with mammary glands are mammals. In philosophical dimensions, the aspect of contingency alludes to statements that seem possible untrue or even true when exposed to possible valuation. When a contingency is proposed it may not be necessarily false or to some extent necessarily true. Contradictions are usually true statements that exhibit true nature or could be true in regard to the facet of communication. In this regard, all contradictions may be viewed and contingent in nature.
Explanation of business decision - Essay Example Several individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ re-adore believers of the ethical standard of utilitarianism: Ã¢â¬Å"Each individual is obligated to perform whatever will attain the biggest good for the biggest figureÃ¢â¬ (Ferrell, 2010:161). Another group is even as dedicated to the main principle of Immanuel Kant: Ã¢â¬Å"Each individual is obligated to perform merely in manners that adore the human self-respect and ethical rights of all peopleÃ¢â¬ Ethical standards such as these concentrate majorly on personsÃ¢â¬â¢ deeds and actions. People use them through asking what these standards need of them in specific situations; for example, when evaluating if to lie or commit suicide. People in addition use them when they ask what they need of them as experts, for example, doctors, lawyers, or business individuals or what they need of their social rules and organizations (Havard, 2007:57). In the past ten years, dozens of morals institutions and schedules dedicated to Ã¢â¬Å"business ethicsÃ¢â¬ , Ã ¢â¬Å"legal moralsÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"medical moralsÃ¢â¬ , and Ã¢â¬Å"morals in civic ruleÃ¢â¬ have emerged. These institutions remain established to study the effects ethical standards have to peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives. ... These moralists note that through concentrating on what individuals must do or the way individuals must behave, the Ã¢â¬Å"ethical principles approachÃ¢â¬ ignores the much significant matter-what individuals must be. Consequently, ethics does not constitute Ã¢â¬Å"what must people do?Ã¢â¬ however, Ã¢â¬Å"what type of individual must one be?Ã¢â¬ (Fernando, 2010:10) Depending on Ã¢â¬Å"virtue ethicsÃ¢â¬ , there are some realities like excellence or devotion to the common good, to which people must struggle and which permit the complete growth of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s humanity. These realities remain noticed by imaginative reflection on what people as human beings have the capacity to change to. Ã¢â¬Å"VirtuesÃ¢â¬ remain feelings, dispositions, or character attributes that facilitate people to be and to perform in manners that grow this capability. They make people follow the realities they have accepted. Brevity, sympathy, honesty, loyalty, fairness, kindness, integrity, carefu lness, and self-control are all examples of good values. How does an individual grow virtues? Virtues remain established by education and by practice. Like the early philosopher Aristotle proposed, an individual would develop his or her behavior by observing self-discipline, whereas a precise character can remain distorted through recurrent self-lenience. Just like the capability to run a marathon grows by much practice and coaching, so the same peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to be justice, to remain brave, or to remain sympathetic (Harris, 2011:74). Virtues are customs. That is, the moment they remain adopted they turn to feature of an individual. For example, an individual who has grown the virtue of kindness is always termed as a kind individual since these people appear to be kind in all situations when
Monday, November 18, 2019
International business environment - Case Study Example These changes in the external economic environment meant that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s had to adapt to the local conditions where shortages were the order of the day, prices were controlled by the government, and inefficiency was the hallmark of the economic system and finally, challenges in procurement of raw materials for its products. Since Russia went through the stages described above, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s had to reorient its strategy to meet the challenges posed by these changes in the external environment which impacted the operations of its stores in Russia. Further, with price control and rationing of raw materials, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s had to cope with uncertainty in procurement which pushes up costs but the end user price remains the same for its finished products. Finally, working with government officials presented challenges of its own which meant that the way in which managers at McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s dealt with government officials impacted its operations as well. These are some aspec ts of the external economic environment which impacted the operations of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s in
The differences between islamic banking and conventional banking-system - Essay Example s that act as safe deposits of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s savings without which they will have no place to save and will also face the risk of keeping all money at home. Banks also facilitate lending and people can borrow any amount of money they require in any convenient manner. Banks essentially act as intermediary between depositors who lend money to the band and borrowers to whom the banks lend money. The amount that banks pay to the depositors and the amount that they received from the borrowers are both called interest. Both depositors and borrowers can be individuals, families, organizations, governments and so on. Since at any point of time some depositors withdraw their money, many others do not. This provides the banks opportunity to convert short term deposits, which are their liabilities to long term loans which are their assets. The interests that banks pay to their borrowers are less than the interests that the banks pay to their depositors. This difference serves as income of ban ks all over the world. Although banks play a crucial role in the management of money from depositors and lending money to the needy, banks are also indispensable for national and international payments system. Banks also create money. Individuals, organizations or governments do not only need banks as safe custody of their money, but they all also need to circulate their funds like money getting transferred from Ã¢â¬Å"buyers to sellers or employers to employees or taxpayers to governmentsÃ¢â¬ (Gobat). In this case too banks play a prominent role. They handle payments like issuing personal cheques to making electronic payments of large amounts between banks. The payments system is a Ã¢â¬Å"complex network of local, national, and international banks and often involves government central banks and private clearing facilities that match up what banks owe each otherÃ¢â¬ (Gobat). In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s era of international trade, most payments are administered instantly. An efficiently managed system of payme nts is
Friday, November 15, 2019
Motivation Theories Application in Construction Most concepts of motivation that apply to the workforce begin with the assumption that behaviour, at least in part, is directed towards the satisfaction of needs or motives. Definitions of motivation include: Willingness to exert effort to achieve the organizations goals, conditioned by this efforts ability to satisfy individual needs (Robbins Coulter, 1996). An employees motivation to work consists of all the drives, forces and influenced- conscious or unconscious- that cause the employee to want to achieve certain aims (Graham and Bennett, 1998 p60) Processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal. Robbins and Judge (2009, p.209) There are many definitions of motivation, however the underlying concept appears to be that, some driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfil some need or expectation (Mullins, 2002, p418). Rudolph and Kleiner (1989) and Armstrong (1999) suggest that it can be divided in to two categories, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is related to tangible benefits such as salary, fringe benefits, security, contract of service, promotion, the work environment and conditions of work. Whereas intrinsic motivation relates to psychological rewards such as the opportunity to use ones ability, a sense of challenge and achievement, receiving appreciation, positive recognition, and being treated in a caring and considerate manner. The importance of the construction industry in relation to the general economy The building and construction industry is essential to welfare and prosperity in the UK. In 2011 the Gross Value Added of the construction industry in the UK was Ã £89.5 billion, 6.7% of total GVA (Gross value added). There were 2.04 million workforce jobs in the UK construction industry in March 2012, 6.4% of all workforce jobs. The GVA of the industry fell in 2008, 2009 and 2010 both in terms of Ã £billions but also its share of the total economy, 2011 saw a slight recovery but the GVA of the construction industry remained below pre-recession levels. (http://www.parliament.uk/briefing-papers/SN01432) The importance of motivation Motivation is extremely important to organisations and companies of all sizes; in a competitive market place such as the construction industry it is vital that staff members are motivated in order to convert physical and financial resources into useful products, ultimately helping to reduce the cost of operations. According to Sabah Karimi (2010) Motivation is important in order to be able to attain the organizations goals and to accomplish long and short term objectives. Managers strive to motivate people in organisations to perform at high levels. This means getting them to work hard, to come to work regularly and to make positive contributions to the organisations goals. However job performance not only depends on motivation but also ability and environmental factors. The relationship of Performance can be stated as follows: P = M + A + E With, P = performance, M = motivation, A= ability, and E = environment To generate high levels of performance an employee must be motivated to do the job, must have the ability to complete the job effectively and must be provided with the necessary equipment/information to do so. Mullins (2002) refers to work by Krietner et al. who proposes that although motivation is a necessary contributor for job performance, it is not the only one. Alongside ability, motivation is also a combination of level of skill, knowledge about how to complete the task, feelings and emotions, and facilitating/inhibiting conditions not under the individuals control. Performance and satisfaction are areas commonly discussed when talking about motivation. Organisations not only want operatives that are productive, but they also want to ensure that their workforce is satisfied in order to reduce employee turnover. Boredom and frustration at work is often the result of an employees lack of involvement with the companys goals and a feeling that their ideas are not wanted or listened to. For the employer, staff turnover increases as employees walk out of the door for more interesting jobs. (Management today) Despite being discussed, there has been little scientific research in to the relationship between satisfaction and productivity and whether operatives are motivated so they are satisfied, productive or both. The importance of motivation is clear and can be summarised in the following quotation: Motivation may be defined as the degree to which individuals commit effort to achieve goals that they perceive as being meaningful and worthwhile Johnson, Johnson, 2003 However, it is slightly unclear are the factors that motivate operatives, if the techniques applied by management are successful, and what the relationship is between satisfaction and productivity. Therefore the aims for this research are to: Understand what motivates construction operatives, by ranking their needs, motivators and de-motivators. Establish what site managers perceive motivates operatives, and compare whether they are of the same opinion as the operatives. Compare the findings of this study with previous research, and establish any differences in opinion Discuss the issue of satisfaction and productivity and establish if there is a relationship between the two MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES THEIR APPLICATION IN CONSTRUCTION There are various theories which endeavour to quantify what motivation is, all which are partially true. However a generalised theory that applies to all individuals in different circumstances has not yet been theorised. It is not essential to discuss all motivational theories but it is however important to identify that each one is different. This project will be expanding on data analysed from previous research which was collected in relation to Maslows hierarchy of needs theory. It also raises key points in regards to issues with satisfaction and productivity, this in which is linked to the work of Herzberg. This chapter will subsequently focus on the work of Maslow and Herzberg; other theories will be outlined briefly. History of motivation Motivation theories can be traced back over two centuries ago to the works of innovative theorists such as Robert Owen, Jeremy Bentham, and Elton Mayo who began to research and implement principles of motivational theories, there be it different models. Robert Owen believed that by caring and looking after the needs of his employees they would be more reliable, efficient and longer lasting. He demonstrated pioneering management and ethical business policies which are now widely recognised and implemented within human resources today. His strategies inspired infant education, the need for safer working practices, the co-operative movement, trade unionism, and garden cities. Jeremy Bentham views are widely known as the carrot and stick approach, a metaphor relating to reward and penalties. Bentham believed that everyone is self-interested, motivated by either a desirable outcome or avoiding an unpleasant one. Although theories of motivation have been explored extensively since, reward and punishment is still considered strong motivators in our society today. Elton Mayo conducted various behavioural experiments to explore methods of motivating staff, from the research he conducted he concluded that staff were not only motivated by pay, work conditions and moral but also psychological and social factors. He also found that recognition and a sense of belonging are very important and that an individuals attitude towards work is strongly influenced by those around them. Outline of theories It is now possible to divide motivation theories into two categories, content theories and process theories. Content theories may also be referred to as need theories as they focus on the importance of establishing what motivates us, trying to identify the needs of individuals and thus relating motivation to the fulfilling of these needs. These theories are concerned with identifying peoples needs, their relative strengths and the goals they pursue in order to satisfy these needs (Mullins 2002). They include: Maslow hierarchy of needs model Herzbergs two-factor theory Alderfers modified need hierarchy model McClellands achievement motivation theory McGregors X and Y theory Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Abraham Maslow introduced a hierarchy of needs in a paper written in 1943, called A Theory of Human Motivation. The hierarchy attempts to explain/propose factors that motivate an individual, Maslow suggested that people are motivated to fulfil basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs. The hierarchy is most commonly displayed in a pyramid format show in figure 1. Maslow believes that we must first achieve physiological needs as they are vital for our survival. They include the need for water, air, food and sleep; these are classed as primary needs as all other steps in the tier are secondary until these needs are met. Safety needs may also include factors that improve security; they are not as demanding as the physiological needs. Once we can sustain ourselves (tier 1) it then becomes essential to ensure our safety/security, examples of this may be protection from weather, health insurance, machinery, vehicles etc. Social needs include our natural urge to feel accepted; examples of this may be with family, relationships or colleagues at work. Esteem needs include feelings such as self-worth, accomplishment and social recognition. Self-actualisation needs represent the highest tier of the hierarchy and are needs concerned with self-fulfilment or personal growth. Maslow believed that each tier must be fairly well satisfied before the needs of the next tier become important to the individual, however Oldcorn (1989) advocates that individuals may not satisfy the first need to move on to the next until they reach the top of the hierarchy. He implies that in reality we try to satisfy a mixture of various needs at any one time. This can often be seen when individuals are put under pressure, sleep and food (physiological needs) may be deprived in order to complete an objective or goal (esteem needs). This argument coincides with Wahba and Bridwell (1976) who reported that there was diminutive evidence to support the ranking of the needs or the hierarchical order, as his theory was difficult to test empirically; furthermore this meant that there are various interpretations of his theory and the clarity of his work has faded over time due to more recent publications by authors with more current views. Nevertheless the values of the tiers remain, regardless of the overlapping of needs. Herzbergs two-factor theory Dr Frederick Herzberg conducted research in order to gain an understanding of what creates job satisfaction. Herzbergs to-factor theory states there are certain factors in the workplace that cause satisfaction, and in turn different factors that create dissatisfaction. Herzberg divided these factors into two categories, hygiene and motivator factors. Principally hygiene factors are crucial in ensuring that workers are not dissatisfied, whereas motivators are needed to increase performance. Motivators are regarded as factors such as challenging work, recognition, responsibility and personal growth; elements Maslow describes as esteem needs. Hygiene factors are extrinsic, these include; job security, salary, fringe benefits and company policies; elements of Maslows higher level needs. They do not provide positive satisfaction, however if they are not present this will create dissatisfaction. There has since been criticism regarding the accuracy of the results concluded in Herzbergs theory, NEED TO INCLUDE POINT THAT DISPOVES, THEN EVIDENCE OF VALIDITIY. Alderfers modified need hierarchy model (ERG Theory) Clayton Alderfer redefined Maslows hierarchy and re-categorised it into three broader classes of needs. These include: Existence Needs Relatedness Needs Growth needs McClellands achievement motivation theory David McClelland was an American psychologist who conducted research to further the work of Abraham Maslows hierarchy of needs theory. McClelland carried out research and experiments to identify the varying needs and motivators in a variety of people. His research suggested that these needs can be categorised into affiliation, power and achievement. Each of these needs influence motivation within an individual, McClelland suggested that these needs or motivators are acquired over time and vary from person to person dependent on their life experiences. Achievement can be defined as a recurrent concern to excel, to do better for its own sake, for the intrinsic satisfaction of doing better. (McClelland, 1961). The power motive can be defined as a recurrent preference or readiness for experiences of having impact, control, or influence over others and the world (McClelland, 1975; Winter, 1973). The affiliative motive has been defined as the preference for establishing, maintaining, and restoring a positive affective relationship with another person or persons (Atkinson et al, 1954, p406). McGregors X and Y Theory Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human motivation, developed by Douglas McGregor in the 1960s. The theories describe two opposing models of employee motivation; X theory proposes that employees are fundamentally idle and have no interest in meeting the organisations objectives, therefore management and direction is necessary in ensuring that the workforce operates productively. Y theory still suggests that management are responsible, however McGregor proposes that management should show confidence in their workforce; giving employees the opportunity to exercise creativity, imagination and ingenuity in order to create a work environment where both management and subordinates share co-operative objectives. Weinbach, 2008 states that Most people can handle responsibility, because creativity and ingenuity are common in the population
Evaluating Statements Made By Criminal Profiling Criminology Essay The purpose of this essay is to critically evaluate the statement made by Hicks Sales in their paper on Criminal Profiling: Developing an Effective Science and Practice (2006) that Profilers have a substantial and sustained contribution to make to criminal investigations It is this authors opinion that the field of offender profiling, or criminal personality profiling is, put quite simply, educated guesswork and is not an exact science. However, in many criminal cases, typically those of a violent nature, it has proved useful to the authorities involved by providing a psychological glimpse of, or an insight to, the offender, or criminal mind that committed the offence. Prior to 1986, profiling was not in common usage by police forces in the UK and it was the first offender profile created in the UK by a professor of applied psychology at Surrey University, David Canter, in the case of the Railway Killer, John Duffy, that led to the Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) setting up a special committee to discuss the results of the Duffy case. In that case, Professor Canter composed a psychological profile of the killer that was accurate on 13 out of the 17 points he made. This was hailed as a breakthrough in the psychological understanding of criminal behaviour and as a result of the special committee meeting a research project was established, led by Canter, to draw up a proper framework for criminal profiling. (Murder Casebook, 1991, p2681) Offender profiling should be understood to consist of a range of methods used to develop advice for investigators, based on the study of behaviour exhibited in the commission of crime(s) and the drawing of inferences about the offender(s). Association of Chief Police Officers policy on offender profiling from the University of Portsmouth Offender Profiling course handbook, p6 In further accordance with the ACPO guidelines on offender profiling for England Wales, it may be considered useful so long as the profile is treated with caution. This author suggests a created criminal profile should not be used to lead an investigation, but may support lines of enquiry relating to the investigation. As already mentioned, there have been many criminal cases resulting in convictions, in which offender profiling has proven useful as an investigative aid, but it should also be noted that there are some cases where an attempt at psychological profiling has proved more a hindrance to an investigation, either by diverting resources away from capturing the actual criminal or creating avenues of fruitless research. For example Richard Jewell as the US Olympic Park bombing suspect in 1996, and in the UK, again in 1996, the case against Colin Stagg in the Rachel Nickel murder. Both were suspected by law enforcement and subsequently treated badly by the media, as a direct result of offender profiles that had been created. Both Jewell and Stagg later successfully claimed monetary compensation from various media corporations that had cast aspersions on their involvement in the two cases cited. (http://medialibel.org/cases-conflicts/tv/jewell.html) and (http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2008/aug/13 /law) In the case of Colin Stagg, the use of deception and false pretences and a profile developed by Dr Paul Britton, at the time the head of the Trent Regional Forensic Psychology Service, resulted in evidence presented to the court being dismissed. Britton (1997, p537) himself has written; the notion of a psychological profile being admissible as proof of identity in any circumstances was redolent with considerable danger. Whilst the profile created by Britton may have accurately portrayed the type of person who could have committed this type of crime, it could not be used as evidence in a court of law that this is the person who committed the crime. Ormerod (1996) agrees, and states both that profiles should be treated as opinion and not as statement of fact, also he writes; Profile evidence generates great prejudice for the accused who possessed the stated characteristics, yet it is insufficiently probative to point to the accused as being the guilty man Referring back to Canters first psychological profile, accurate on 13 out of 17 points, again this appears to be an indication that offender profiling is not an exact science as his assertions were 76.47% accurate, certainly a good indicator but not proof beyond reasonable doubt. A scientific experiment should be reproducible, providing the same results regardless of the individual conducting the experiment. With offender profiling, differing results may be induced, or deduced, depending on the education, experience and knowledge of the person creating the profile. The UK Coals to Newcastle (CTN) project (1995), jointly developed by the London Metropolitan Police and the Home Office, aimed to provide operational assistance to law enforcement in the investigation of serious crimes, as well as attempt to develop offender profiling as a science. (Gudjonsson Copson, 1997) The main question asked by the CTN project was that of whether or not that profiling told an investigating officer only what he or she already knew, or if it could provide information that could assist with an investigation. The report did show that of the 184 instances covered by the project, 88 of them were dealt with by only two individuals, an academic psychologist and a clinical psychologist, both of whom had been accredited by the chief police officers committee. (Gudjonsson Copson, 1997). The qualifications held by profilers used by law enforcement tend to be in the fields of psychology and psychiatry, for example Dr Paul Britton specialised in psychopathology and sexual dysfunction and Professor David Canter in applied psychology, later developing the field of investigative psychology. (www.ia-ip.org) So, it is here, that this author feels that proof is presented, that education plays a vital and important role in the development of a profiler, especially if one is to be accredited for use by the police in the UK. Professor David Canter, in his paper on Offender profiling and criminal differentiation (2000), notes that there are some promising results shown in some areas of study and that these results are most likely to be of value to police investigations if the police officers are trained accordingly and that the methods described are utilized during the construction of the systems that can support the decision making process. It was Canters development of the Radex model (2000) that attempted to offer a different approach to classifying criminal behaviour by identifying dominant themes in behaviour rather than oversimplifying criminals into certain types. Figure 1 shows a general model for a radex as applied to criminal actions with, at its centre, actions that may be considered typical of all criminals and moving to the periphery, actions that are more specific. Figure 2 is a representation that attempts to distinguish the different qualities of behavioural science in criminal behaviour. The Radex model proved useful to Hodge (1998) and lent to the conclusion during her analysis of spatial patterns in serial murder that in crimes of extreme violence there is likely to be a substantial level of interpersonal interaction between victim and offender. Source: Canter (2000) Offender profiling and criminal differentiation It was Canter Heritages published study of rape in 1990 that first demonstrated the existence of a radial structure for crime and that using a multi-dimensional scaling (MDS) analysis by correlating the variables collected, they were able to represent these correlations in relation to each other allowing for trends, patterns and a behavioural salient analysis of criminal behaviour. This method of analysis may be described as inductive criminal profiling, in that the information gathered is from limited population samples and is not going to be specifically related to any one single case. Also, inductive profiles can be rather generalised and tend to be averaged from the data. Information is only collected from those offenders that have already been caught and this author notes; from those who agree to interview or answering a prepared questionnaire and those captured offenders that are actually capable of doing so. This would seem to indicate that there is going to be a possibility that those individuals with either no speech or understanding and certain social dysfunctional disorders may have difficulty comprehending the nature of the questioning and would therefore be unable to provide reliable answers. Also, there must be some consideration to the fact that they may not actually tell the truth. In addition, the most skilful and perhaps, most intelligent criminals that avoid being caught are not going to be included in the data set. As a result, information could be missing from the criminal profile. (Turvey, 2001) In contrast to inductive profiling, deductive offender profiling relies on the examination of scenes of crime, forensic evidence as well as behavioural motivation for criminal behaviour in relation to a single crime. This is the source for the many successful drama and crime shows on television and film, including Cracker, the CSI series, Criminal Minds and Silence of the Lambs, where, on TV, they usually solve the crime within the hour. This could possibly lead to a false impression in the public eye of just how effective and fast paced offender profiling really is. Deductive profiling takes time and relies on several aspects when the profile is created, such as the offenders emotional state during the offense, patterns of behaviour and personality characteristics at the crime scene as well as a study into the choice of the offenders victim, known as victimology. (Kocsis, 2006) In 1973, Howard Teten, Pat Mullany and Robert Ressler of the FBI used the then new criminal investigative analysis techniques to create a profile of a white, young, male, peeping tom with sexual and homicidal tendencies that led directly to the arrest of David Meirhofer for the abduction and murder of a seven year old girl. The 1978 FBI profile of the so-called Vampire of Sacramento, Richard Chase, was created following a study of the disorder of the crime scene, body type and mental temperament and concluded that the offender was disorganized, hed be unemployed, live alone, would be ethnically white, thin, undernourished and his mid-twenties. (Lerner Lerner, 2006) Deductive reasoning is useful in establishing a Modus Operandi (MO) and the signature of a particular criminal. Geberth (1996) defined both the MO and signature as being a dynamic method of operation that changes over time as the offender becomes more experienced and that the significant personal identifiers can distingui sh the nature of the offenders crime scenes and methodology respectively. The classification of offenders as being either organised or disorganised (Ressler et al, 1995) has been debated and Turvey (2001) dismisses this dichotomy of organised versus disorganised for several reasons, including that of psychopathy being a complex personality disorder and should not be assumed simply by the lack of psychotic behaviour or evidence. A disorganised crime scene could be the result of non-psychotic events, such as those created in domestic violence, anger-retaliatory offences, those that involve the use of controlled substances and those scenes that have been changed by the offender for the purpose of staging a crime or possibly as an anti-forensics exercise. Turvey further states that this false dichotomy as he describes it, does not take into account the fact that an offender may learn from their mistakes and/or successes and subsequently may develop and modify their criminal behaviour with experience. The 2004 study by Canter, Alison, Alison and Wentnik of serial killer behaviour through secondary sources showed that most offenders will exhibit, and the crime scene may reveal, a mix of both organised and disorganised characteristics. For example, whilst an attack may initially start as a premeditated organised assault, if it deteriorates or an unexpected event occurs, such as the inability to control a victim, it may lead to an escalation in the level of violence. It is also noted that Canter et al proposed the offenders emotional state, victim resistance and the fact that more than one offender is involved may create a different emergent patterns. The Behavioural Analysis Unit (BAU) of the American Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the result of the initial development by Howard Teten and Pat Mullany in 1969 to try and explain the actions and behavioural characteristics of violent offenders. Robert Ressler, who invented the term serial killer (Murder Casebook, p4311) was responsible for founding the National Center for Analysis of Violent Crime (NCAVC) and it is within this section of the FBI that the BAU is a component. Whilst popularised in the media, and specifically the current American CBS TV series, Criminal Minds, it is noted that, despite their appearance on TV and in film, there is no position with the title of Profiler within the FBI. (www.fbijobs.gov/114.asp) The FBI utilises this deductive style of profiling and appears to rely less on clinical psychology methodology than perhaps the British profilers do and has over time created a considerable knowledge base that is used to assist Federal, state, local and international law enforcement agencies. According to former FBI Special Agent Gregg McCrary, and contributing author to the Crime Classification Manual (1992), the FBI methodology is based upon investigators trying to collect information about the offender including the what was the antecedent, or trigger, for the events that took place, the method and manner of the victim and attack, information relating to the disposal, or not, of the victim as well as post-offence behaviour, such as being close to the investigation and contacting investigators or attempting to inject themselves in to proceedings. The FBI methodology for profiling violent crime is a four stage process beginning with the collection of data at the scene, forensic anal ysis and also coroner, autopsy and witness reports. Next, the methodology involves classifying and then reconstructing the crime through experienced observations about the MO, signature and motivation for the offence. This will include trying to ascertain why the offender chose this particular victim on this particular day, why they used the tools they did and also the whether the motivation for the crime was that of power reassurance or assertiveness or anger in a retaliatory or excitational way. That is to say, the observations raised will look to answer whether the offender could be a serial psychosexual sadistic killer or if the crime was one of passion or revenge. The final stage of the FBI methodology is that of creating the profile and this may well involve demographic information, educational background and intellectual functioning, family and personality characteristics, legal and arrest history, habits and social interests as well as any evidence in relation to the actual scene of the crime. (Shalev, 2010) Offender profiling and crime analysis can also be aided by profiling the geography of an area in which a crime was committed. Research by Holmes Holmes (2002) attempted to define crime scene locations as being either an encounter site, an attack site, a crime site or a victim and vehicle disposal site. This, when combined with information previously gathered, may give clues as to the residence of an offender and assist with creating the overall criminal profile. Rossmo (2000) had earlier defined geographic profiling as a methodology that can be used to identify locations connected to a series of crimes that may determine the most likely area of residence for an offender. In conclusion, the author would like to return to the assertion made at the beginning of this essay, that offender profiling is educated guesswork. It has been shown through this essay that education, as well as experience, or life education, plays a vital role when considering all aspects of creating a profile for the purposes of aiding a criminal investigation. Whether this education is that of a clinical, research or field based experience, it can bring with it valuable knowledge that can assist an investigation. Copson (1995) and Gudjonsson Copson (1997) asked respondents whether they thought that the advice supplied by profilers proved to operationally useful and 82.6% replied that it was. Although, when asked if the advice opened new lines of enquiry, 82.1% replied that it did not and only in 2.7% of cases did the profile lead to the actual identification of the offender. The author also stated that offender profiling is not an exact science and this has been demonstrated from Canters first profile being accurate to around 76% through to the Association of Chief Police Officers guidelines that offender profiling should be treated with caution and should be considered as one of many tools that can provide advice and lines of inquiry for the investigative team to follow. So, if offender profiling, as it is commonly known, is not an exact science, could it be that this field of study is an art form? If it is considered an art, then as Pablo Picasso said, Art is the elimination of the unnecessary. Perhaps there is a parallel that can be drawn between that statement from the famous artist and the subject of criminal profiling, in that, through being able to eliminate certain aspects of an offenders personality and behaviour and consider the alternatives, useful information may present itself. Therefore, it is this authors opinion that profilers will continue to make valid and sustained contributions to criminal investigations, whether it is substantial will very much depend upon the profiler tasked with the job and the type of offence committed.
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Macbeth from Macbeth Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In William Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth we find a guilt and fear-ridden usurper of the throne of Scotland. Let us study this character in this essay. Ã A.C. Bradley in Shakespearean Tragedy paints a portrait of Macbeth: Ã Macbeth, the cousin of a King mild, just, and beloved, but now too old to lead his army, is introduced to us as a general of extraordinary prowess, who has covered himself with glory in putting down a rebellion and repelling the invasion of a foreign army. In these conflicts he showed great personal courage, a quality which he continues to display throughout the drama in regard to all plain dangers. It is difficult to be sure of his customary demeanour, for in the play we see him either in what appears to be an exceptional relation to his wife, or else in the throes of remorse and desperation; but from his behaviour during his journey home after the war, from his later conversations with Lady Macbeth, and from his language to the murderers of Banquo and to others, we imagine him as a great warrior, somewhat masterful, rough and abrupt, a man to inspire some fear and much admiration. (322) Ã In his book, On the Design of Shakespearean Tragedy, H. S. Wilson tells how the audience is inclined to identify with such a rogue as Macbeth: Ã That such a man should sacrifice all the wealth of his human spirit - his kindness, his love, his very soul - to become a victim to continual fears, a tyrant ruthlessly murdering in the vain attempt to feel safe, finally to be killed like a foul beast of prey - this is terrible, and pitiful, too. Shakespeare has here achieved for us most poignantly the ambivalence of the tragic effect Aristotle described. We see the ne... ... Samuel. The Plays of Shakespeare. N.p.: n.p.. 1765. Rpt in Shakespearean Tragedy. Bratchell, D. F. New York, NY: Routledge, 1990. Ã Kemble, Fanny. "Lady Macbeth." Macmillan's Magazine, 17 (February 1868), p. 354-61. Rpt. in Women Reading Shakespeare 1660-1900. Ann Thompson and Sasha Roberts, eds. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1997. Ã Lamb, Charles. On the Tragedies of Shakespeare. N.p.: n.p.. 1811. Rpt in Shakespearean Tragedy. Bratchell, D. F. New York, NY: Routledge, 1990. Ã Mack, Maynard. Everybody's Shakespeare: Reflections Chiefly on the Tragedies. Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press, 1993. Ã Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Macbeth. http://chemicool.com/Shakespeare/macbeth/full.html, no lin. Ã Wilson, H. S. On the Design of Shakespearean Tragedy. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, 1957.
Public Relations in Professional Sports "If industry is to be successful in dealing with public opinion . . . it must learn the language of the people, it must consider the study of public opinion as important as any phase of its operations. It must recognize that public opinion can be measured, and utilize the increasingly scientific methods developing today for gauging it"(Ross) PR today, has undergone a massive restructuring and organization and is now gaining recognition worldwide. An offshoot of this is PR in sports. The sports industry in the U.S. generates $213 - $350 billion a year as revenues and is growing by the day (ESPN). Everyone tries to cash in on their benefits. Sports PR have come a long way. Today it is far more dynamic and complex. Public Relations is a very broad industry, serving a wide variety of institutions in society such as businesses, trade unions, government agencies, voluntary associations, foundations, hospitals, schools, colleges, and sports teams. Sports in the last fifty years have changed an amazing amount. It used to be just two teams playing against each other strictly for the love of the sport and for the enjoyment of the few people in attendance. As time went on and attendance and interest in professional sports grew so did the cash flow. Teams began adding more coaches as well scouts. It became obvious that a font office staff was needed to take care of the day to day operations of sports teams. In the 1940s baseball owner Bill Veeck changed the games even more when he promised the game to be the least exciting part of the evening. He hosting LadiesÃ¢â¬â¢ Night, Fireworks Fridays, and a Disco Demolition Night in which he blew up a pile of old records, Veeck brought sports into a new era (Veeck & Linn, 1962). Bill Veeck was the first true PR man in sports. He sold out stadium after stadium, in several different cities. The sports PR which Bill Veeck started has now evolved and is a much different brand of PR then every other industry. In order for an Athletic team to have effective PR, they require very large in-house staffs which are very diverse in there job descriptions and responsibilities. The first and broadest group is the basic public relations staff. The basic public relations staff takes care of the basic day to day of the organization. They are the people who write and release the updates on the team to ... ...Bernie Parent spoke to the sell-out crowd of 17,000 while PelleÃ¢â¬â¢s #31 hung in black above the ice. The spoke about the positives that Pelle gave Philadelphia and there was no mention of alcohol. The PR director at the time, Joe Kadlac made sure that PelleÃ¢â¬â¢s death would not look bad on the team for allowing him to drink and drive but instead showed he was a team player. A fan in the upper level had a sign that simply read, Ã¢â¬Å"Get PelleÃ¢â¬â¢s Name On The Cup, Its His Last Chance.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Public Relations are a critical part of sports. It is what puts people in the seats pays the athletes and builds the stadiums. Public Relations are what make sports what it is today. If it were not for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s ever changing public relations industry sports would not be what they are today. Sources Bill Veeck with Ed Linn, Ã¢â¬Å"Veeck--As in WreckÃ¢â¬ , G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1962 The Baseball Library T.J. Ross, The Public Relations Problem of Industry, American Management Series (New York, 1937), pp. 6--9. Crafting the national pastime's image: The history of major league baseball public relations William B Anderson. Journalism and Communication Monographs. Columbia: Spring 2003. Vol. 5, Iss. 1; pg. 5
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Ever since the advent of industrialization, there has been an increase in the emission of several greenhouse gases (GHG) mainly due to the burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide emissions account for 80% of global warming of GHG emission, as compared with 57% in the 1980s (Lashof & Ahuja, 1990). Panwar, Kaushik & Kothari (2011) also states that excessive fossil fuel consumption will have adverse impacts on the environment, and increase threat of global climate change. Fortunately, more and more countries are starting to be aware of climate change, which comes as a result of the increase of emission of GHG.Therefore, various proposals to reduce emission of GHG have been drawn up to suggest possible solutions to reduce the impact of climate change. While all of these proposals are useful to reduce emission of GHG, some will be more practical and effective due to other problems, which may arise. One of these proposals includes developing more non-polluting renewable energy sources (RES ). This is a practical way to reduce the impact of climate change as it directly reduces GHG emissions. Currently, RES supply 14% of the total world energy demand (Panwar et. l. , 2011). RES includes biomass, hydropower, geothermal, solar, wind and marine energies. By harnessing energy from RES, dependence on conventional energy sources that produce GHG will be reduced. For example, solar energy is the most abundant RES and is available as both direct and indirect form. Solar energy can be used directly in solar thermal applications, or indirectly in photovoltaic systems to generate electricity. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emission mitigation potential from 1. kWp solar pump is about 2085kg from diesel-operated pumps (Panwar et. al. , 2011). Therefore, by using RES, we can directly reduce the GHG emissions by moving away from energy sources that produce GHG. This is also the most practical solution as RES are readily available and abundant all around us. What needs to be done is to build t he infrastructure required to harness RES so we can become less reliant on GHG-producing energy sources and thus reduce GHG emissions. Another such proposal involves reforestation to Ã¢â¬Å"soak upÃ¢â¬ more CO2.Reforestation is the next most effective solution as it also deals with removing CO2 emissions directly from the atmosphere. Trees have the ability to absorb CO2 and convert it to stable carbon Ã¢â¬Å"sinksÃ¢â¬ in the form of biomass stored in trunks, branches and organic matter in the soils (Moulton & Andrasko, 1990). This carbon Ã¢â¬Å"sequestrationÃ¢â¬ is important as it removes CO2 in the atmosphere and locks it in wood that can be used for furniture and other construction applications. In addition, reforestation offers an opportunity for emission control investments (Niskanen, 1997).However, it may not be as practical as developing more non-polluting RES as reforestation requires a large area of land and not many countries will be willing to give up land space, which could potentially bring economic benefit. Also, reforestation efforts are expensive. According to Moulton and Andrasko (1990), a budget of $65 million is proposed in the USA for the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s proposed tree-planting initiative. This huge amount coupled with limited economic benefits the country will gain from reforestation may deter governments from supporting the proposal.Thus, while reforestation provides a sink for CO2, it may not be a practical solution due to economic and land concerns. Governments must be able to prioritise the long-term environmental benefits involved to make better decisions. The next proposal involves reducing energy use by conservation. By reducing energy use by conservation, the global energy demand will be reduced, and thus less non-renewable energy sources will be burnt at power plants, reducing GHG emissions. This is another possible solution to reduce GHG emissions.For example, this can come by using solid-state lighting instead of incan descent bulbs. Government agencies have introduced policies to conserve energy usage through more efficient use of energy (Sen, Khazanov & Kishimoto, 2011). Incandescent light bulbs typically convert 5% of energy into visible light. Solid-state light-emitting semiconductors promise to offer conversion efficiencies of 50% or more (Sen et. al. , 2011). However, the success of this solution is dependent on the collective mindset of the community on a global scale.This will require time and education to encourage reduced energy use through conservation. In addition, with an increasing number of countries becoming more affluent, the global energy demand will increase. Therefore, reduction of energy use by conservation is limited to the affluence of the country, and research can then be used to develop more efficient technology to reduce energy use. This is harder to achieve, as it is more difficult to develop a culture to conserve energy, than to convince governments on reforestation.The next proposal involves adding more nuclear power plants to replace current conventional coal-burning power plants. Nuclear energy provides carbon free production of electrical energy, and produces much more energy than conventional energy sources (Grandin, Jagers & Kullander, 2010). One uranium fuel pellet contains the same amount of energy as 1,780 pounds of coal or 149 gallons of oil (Palliser, 2012). Thus, much more energy can be generated from a small amount of nuclear source. Nuclear waste is small in physical size compared to waste produced by other forms of energy (Palliser, 2012).While this provides a clean source of energy and reduces the emission of GHG, it may not be the most practical idea due to the concerns of radioactivity. Nuclear waste has to be stored in steel-lined, concrete vaults filled with water or in aboveground steel or steel-reinforced concrete containers with steel inner canisters (EPA, 2010). In addition, uranium is a nonrenewable resource that cannot be replenished on a human timescale. Fossil fuel emissions are also associated with uranium mining and enrichment process and the transport of uranium fuel to the nuclear power plant (EPA, 2010).Therefore while nuclear power plants produce zero GHG, the processes involved may still produce GHG. The radioactive risks involving the waste and storage could become another environmental problem. Hence, while adding more nuclear power plants will definitely reduce GHG emissions, it is not very practical as it will create numerous environmental problems as mentioned above. The last proposal involves removing carbon in fossil fuels before combustion and Ã¢â¬Å"sequesteringÃ¢â¬ that carbon in underground reservoirs. This involves hydrogen production from fossil fuels that include steam reforming and water gas shift (Steinberg, 1999).In order to suppress CO2 emission from the steam reforming process, CO2 must be sequestered underground. This removes CO2 emission into the atmosphere, thereby reducing GHG emissions making it an effective solution to reduce GHG emissions. However, such a process involves higher cost and lower efficiency (Hetland, 2008) making this solution is the least practical as up to 40% of the energy is lost through Ã¢â¬Å"sequesteringÃ¢â¬ in underground (Steinberg, 1999). Therefore the efficiency of such a solution is compromised, as it is not as efficient as conventional coal burning.In addition, by Ã¢â¬Å"sequesteringÃ¢â¬ carbon in underground reservoirs, these reservoirs are susceptible to leaks and this gas might be released again. Also, fossil fuels are considered non-renewable energy sources and therefore such a solution is only effective so long as there are such resources. Therefore, this is the least practical and least efficient solution available. In conclusion, even though there are many solutions to reduce GHG emissions, critical analysis of each proposal is required to determine which solution is the most practical and the most e fficient, according to the local constraints and economic cost-benefit analysis.Ultimately, the onus is on governments to recognise the impact of each possible proposal, and to decide which path to take in terms of reducing GHG emissions to reduce the impact of climate change. References Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2010. Nuclear energy, Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 29/03/2013 from http://www. epa. gov/cleanenergy/energy-and-you/affect/nuclear. html Grandin, K. , Jagers, P. , Kullander, S. (2010). Nuclear energy. A Journal of the Human Environment, 39, 26-30. Hetland, J. (2008).Assessment of pre-combustion decarbonisation schemes for polygeneration from fossil fuels. Clean Technology Environmental Policy, 11, 37-48. Lashof, D. A. , Ahuja, D. R. (1990). Relative contributions of greenhouse gas emissions to global warming. Nature, 344, 529-531. Moulton, R. J. , Andrasko, K. (1990). Reforestation. EPA Journal, 16 (2), 14-16. Niskanen, A. (1997). Value of external environmental impacts of reforestation in Thailand. Ecological Economics, 26 (1998), 287-297. Palliser, J. (2012). Nuclear Energy. Science Scope January 2012, 14-18.Panwar, N. L. , Kaushik, S. C. , Kothari, S. (2011) Role of renewable energy sources in environmental protection: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15, 1513-1524. Sen, S. , Khazanov, G. , Kishimoto, Y. (2011) Environment, renewable energy and reduced carbon emissions. Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids: Incorporating Plasma Science and Plasma Technology, 166 (10,) 834-842. Steinberg, M. (1999). Fossil Fuel decarbonisation technology for mitigating global warming. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 24 (8), 771-777.
The title of my chosen song is called Patience by Damian Marley Featuring Nas. I chose this poem because of its spiritual meaning and because it represents what our world has turned into. Even though its six years old, and the world has changed a lot since then, they made a very precise prediction of what the condition of our economy will be today. The poem was written by Nas and Damian Marley themselves in year 2008 and composed in 2010. Damian Marley is the son of a popular Jamaican Reggae artist named Bob Marley. His father was a legend whose music was influenced by social issues of his homeland and politics and economics. Damian Marley took after his father and majority of his songs are about social issues, making love and peace. Damian Marley is also strongly connected to his spiritual side just like his father was, which is why I love their music. The purpose of this song was to make you think about our creation, and our surroundings. Is God real? Why were we born? WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s true intelligence, the kind you learn at school, or the kind that comes to you from experience and spiritual wisdom? The topic of this song is Social Issues. Ã¢â¬Å"Who made up words? Who made up numbers? And what kind of spell is mankind under? Everything on the planet we preserve and can it microwaved it and preserved it, and try it no matter what weÃ¢â¬â¢ll survive it, whatÃ¢â¬â¢s man? WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s human? Anything along the land we consuming eatinÃ¢â¬â¢, deletinÃ¢â¬â¢, ruin, trying to get paper gotta have land, gotta have acres. Ã¢â¬ I quoted this because it shows what the poem is about and itÃ¢â¬â¢s intended meaning. The artists asked a lot of questions, so while we are listening to the song, these questions be absorbed by our sub-conscious mind and we will start to think about the world and wonder why our lifestyleÃ¢â¬â¢s are filled with media influences and social networking. The overall mood and feeling in this song is a drifting hypnotic feeling. The reggae and rap mixed together gives it a slow feel, but since the wording is so strong is makes you focus directly on what the artists are rapping about. The instruments chosen in this song are very strong, but played at a slow and relaxing melody. Damian Marley and Nas are asking questions and talking to people, but you donÃ¢â¬â¢t know who the song is for or what itÃ¢â¬â¢s about, itÃ¢â¬â¢s for you to interpret it in your own way, so the poetic device used in this song is Ã¢â¬Å"apostropheÃ¢â¬ . Huh, we born not knowing, are we born knowing all? We growing wiser, are we just growing tall? Can you read thoughts, can you read palms? shows that they are trying to get you to interpret the meaning in your own way. The overall message in this song is to realize that we were put on this earth for a reason, and it is relevant to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society because we often forget where we come from and we pay too much attention to the media, and our lives are all about trying to fit in. Some of the worst paparazzi IÃ¢â¬â¢ve ever seen and I ever known, put the worst on display so the world can see and thatÃ¢â¬â¢s all they will ever show. Ã¢â¬ This quote is to show how the media and news only portray negative messages, so when Damian Marley says Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s all you will ever knowÃ¢â¬ it is to show that the media makes us insecure so we only see the worst in ourselves. This is a very respectful and meaningful song and I think everyone should learn from it.
Friday, November 8, 2019
World War I Ernist Junger explores various experiences he underwent during World War One in his book The Storm of Steel. JungerÃ¢â¬â¢s book, written in form of a personal memoir, highlights how thousands of individuals were affected by the horrors of World War One.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on World War I specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More When the Storm of Steel was published, it became a favorite in Germany since it adored the greatness of war and the huge sacrifices made by the Germany warriors to end the war victoriously. Junger believes he was lucky to participate in such a great war that will undoubtedly enter GermanyÃ¢â¬â¢s history. Despite the fact that JungerÃ¢â¬â¢s book is very detailed, it is easy to follow since it is divided into chapters regarding various times spent at different locations during the war. Also, the language used in the book is not limited to those in the military, and hence, any reader who u nderstands English can easily read through the book. In addition, the book explores the extent to which soldiers disregard life while at war and the various approaches they use in adapting to the deadly environment. Though the book glorifies the greatness of World War One, it also covers some subtle anti-war elements (Junger, 1996). Accordingly, the book is in depth with several parts that are informative and interesting. For instance, Junger writes that he found so much pleasure when he adventured into war. This situation sounds unrealistic considering the consequences that war presents. In 1912, his father managed to retrieve him from the French Foreign Legion where he had joined voluntarily. However, JungerÃ¢â¬â¢s father failed to contain him when he voluntarily joined another war that started in 1914 believing that trench fights would glorify his true nature. Here, it is crucial to emphasize that it is unfamiliar for someone to volunteer into war. By the fact that Junger willi ngly volunteered himself, a sense of concern is developed. Apparently, Junger was sane when he made his decision. Besides, he believed that Germany soldiers had all the strength needed to win in that war. Even after he underwent the battle of Somme, Junger believed he needed to fight on alongside his friends who fought to death beside him (Junger, 1996).Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This part of JungerÃ¢â¬â¢s book informs us of the determination that Germany soldiers had during World War One. Besides, it is so interesting and absurd at the same time that some soldiers like Junger fought on even after losing some of their friends to war. Moreover, the manner in which Junger interprets duty must have undoubtedly influenced him during the war. When he explains why he did not run away from war at terrifying times, he says that deep inside his soul there was some strange voice that kept on besieging him to stay, and that specific voice was the power of Duty and Honor. This can be interpreted that Germany soldiers were kept in the trenches of France and Flanders fighting because they were performing their duty. In fact, it was this duty that determined their relative performance in World War One, and relative performance was directly proportional to the honor that they were awarded. Another very informative part of JungerÃ¢â¬â¢s work regarding duty and honor is apparent when he writes on the urge to quit fighting. He asserts that leaving was not optional as it would have displayed him as a wretch and a coward. Since it was JungerÃ¢â¬â¢s priority to gain respect and honor, he persistently and patiently waited until the last day of war. However, the writer admits that the element of fulfilling duty needed a lot of sacrifice during the war. Junger goes ahead to inform us how far the Germany soldiers were willing to go in pursuit of performing their duty. Furthermore, it is interesting to learn the kind of language used by Germany soldiers during World War One. In fact, Junger constantly uses the words Ã¢â¬Å"fellÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"fallenÃ¢â¬ instead of Ã¢â¬Å"killedÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"dead.Ã¢â¬ This implies that the Germany soldiers respected those of them who died while fighting. Again, this language is believed to lessen the grief that death usually presents. For example, Junger calls death Ã¢â¬Å"gloriousÃ¢â¬ when he writes about his friend who was departed by the fighting spirits and subsequently succumbed to a Ã¢â¬Å"gloriousÃ¢â¬ death. He proceeds to write that Ã¢â¬Å"gloriousÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"heroicÃ¢â¬ death in war is imminent and cannot be avoided by whatever means.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on World War I specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Here, the writer focuses on the do or die attitude soldiers hold once they are in the battle field. For the soldiers who survived in World War One, they witnessed the rebirth of a new country, but for those who fell, their names were held in glory.Throughout the book, Junger uses several of such passages and even sometimes talks of death without fanfare (Junger, 1996). In addition, Storm of Steel is so informative regarding the extent of patriotism the Germany Army had for their country during the war.It is not by surprise that JungerÃ¢â¬â¢s patriotism earned him the nationalist right besides attending the Nazi Party (Junger, 1996). Fittingly, it needed more than love of the nation and duty for the Germany soldiers to make the sacrifices they made during World War One. Factually, JungerÃ¢â¬â¢s argument regarding patriotism is very correct considering the fact that not all men in Germany volunteered to fight for their country. Therefore, it is credit for those soldiers who persevered through World War One. Junger proceeds to point out that men on either side of the battle went int o war because they put the interest of their countries first. He concludes by saying they fought and gave their lives for free to Germany unlike their enemies who fell for nothing. Indeed, the spirit of patriotism cannot go beyond what the Germany soldiers did for their country during World War One. Overall, JungerÃ¢â¬â¢s book presents mixed messages in the most informative manner regarding World War One. Similar to other soldiers who were involved in the war, Junger went into it aiming to adventure but quickly got disillusioned. The Germany soldiers did not give up the fight despite the great challenges that they met. Instead, they depended on the call of duty and honor coupled with the spirit of patriotism to come out of the war as heroes. This book is of great importance to different cadres of people especially historians since it supplies them with personal accounts of an individual who experienced the war in person. Also, most of the events that happened in World War One are illustrated systematically in an interesting manner. The Storm of Steel remains the most popular book because the writer adopts a clear and open way of expressing the experience of soldiers in No ManÃ¢â¬â¢s Land.Advertising Looking for essay on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Reference List Junger, E. (1996). The Storm of Steel. New York: Howard Fertig.
Practice Using Contractions and Apostrophes This exercise will give you practice in applying the first principle introduced in Using Apostrophes Correctly: Use an apostrophe to show the omission of letters in a contraction. Instructions Combine the sentences in each set below into a single clear sentence, converting the words in bold into contractions. Feel free to change the word order, add connecting words, and eliminate needless repetition. Heres an example: Example Original: You are tired. You should not try to study.Combined: You shouldnt try to study when youre tired. If you run into any problems while working on this exercise, review the pages on Standard Contractions in English and What Is Sentence Combining? When youre done, compare your responses with the sample combinations on page two. It is too cold to go swimming this morning.I will stay home and read a book.This morning I left a message for Sam.He has not returned my call.We are lost.We are on a road that does not go anywhere.We will be joining you in Springfield.We hope you do not mind.There is the man.He is the man who is engaged to my sister.She is quitting her job.She did not say why.Merdine has not attended any classes this week.I do not know what is troubling her.The Simpsons are not going with us to the movies.They have not been able to find a babysitter.It is not fair.You are going to Hawaii.I am stuck at home.I would like to help you.You are a close friend.I am too busy right now. Various combinations are possible for each set of sentences in the exercise on page one. Here are some sample responses. Sample Combinations: Exercise in Combining Sentences With Contractions Because its too cold to go swimming this morning, Ill stay home and read a book.This morning I left a message for Sam, but he hasnt returned my call. Were lost on a road that doesnt go anywhere.We hope you dont mind that well be joining you in Springfield. Theres the man whos engaged to my sister.She didnt say why shes quitting her job.Merdine hasnt attended any classes this week, and I dont know whats troubling her.The Simpsons arent going with us to the movies because they havent been able to find a babysitter. Its not fair that youre going to Hawaii while Im stuck at home.Because youre a close friend, Id like to help you, but Im too busy right now.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Betrayal Ã¢â¬Å"To betray you must first belong.Ã¢â¬ - Harold Philby (paralumun) Betrayal when realized is a phenomenally existential feeling. Without warning the world around the betrayed is not what it was before the incident. There are many feelings that accompany a breech of confidence such as betrayal; most of them are symptoms of depression. If an incident is an immense violation of ones trust for another, associated feelings may include rage and despair (Brewer 3). By dissecting the actions of the person that was betrayed after the incident occurs we can evaluate the level of betrayal. Depending on the level of the betrayal the betrayed may be able to forgive the person that has defiled them. Some instances of betrayal may lead to Betrayal Trauma. This theory Ã¢â¬Å"predicts that the degree to which a negative event represents a betrayal by a trusted needed other will influence the way in which that event is processed and rememberedÃ¢â¬ (Freyd 1). The word Ã¢â¬ËbetrayalÃ¢â¬â¢ in loose terms has a broad range of classification. A simple white lie in some instances could be considered betrayal, and on the opposite end of the spectrum, infidelity most certainly is regarded as betrayal. Ã¢â¬Å"It is so very important to remember that trust given and trust broken is at the core of the betrayal issueÃ¢â¬ (Brewer 2). From this it is safe to say that any act which subsequently the victim feels like they need to re-evaluate their relationship with the offender would be classified as betrayal. In David MametÃ¢â¬â¢s play, The Cryptogram (1994) each individual character (Donny, Robert, Del, and John) betrays the others in some way or another. Each character copes with the situations solitarily and unique to the other characters present. Del and John were subjected to a higher level of betrayal; this is proven by studying their behaviors after the incidents occur. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s start wit... Free Essays on Betrayal In The Cryptrogram Free Essays on Betrayal In The Cryptrogram Betrayal Ã¢â¬Å"To betray you must first belong.Ã¢â¬ - Harold Philby (paralumun) Betrayal when realized is a phenomenally existential feeling. Without warning the world around the betrayed is not what it was before the incident. There are many feelings that accompany a breech of confidence such as betrayal; most of them are symptoms of depression. If an incident is an immense violation of ones trust for another, associated feelings may include rage and despair (Brewer 3). By dissecting the actions of the person that was betrayed after the incident occurs we can evaluate the level of betrayal. Depending on the level of the betrayal the betrayed may be able to forgive the person that has defiled them. Some instances of betrayal may lead to Betrayal Trauma. This theory Ã¢â¬Å"predicts that the degree to which a negative event represents a betrayal by a trusted needed other will influence the way in which that event is processed and rememberedÃ¢â¬ (Freyd 1). The word Ã¢â¬ËbetrayalÃ¢â¬â¢ in loose terms has a broad range of classification. A simple white lie in some instances could be considered betrayal, and on the opposite end of the spectrum, infidelity most certainly is regarded as betrayal. Ã¢â¬Å"It is so very important to remember that trust given and trust broken is at the core of the betrayal issueÃ¢â¬ (Brewer 2). From this it is safe to say that any act which subsequently the victim feels like they need to re-evaluate their relationship with the offender would be classified as betrayal. In David MametÃ¢â¬â¢s play, The Cryptogram (1994) each individual character (Donny, Robert, Del, and John) betrays the others in some way or another. Each character copes with the situations solitarily and unique to the other characters present. Del and John were subjected to a higher level of betrayal; this is proven by studying their behaviors after the incidents occur. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s start wit...
About Plato and His Philosophical Ideas Plato was one of the most famous, respected, and influential philosophers of all time. A type of love (Platonic) is named for him. We know the Greek philosopher Socrates mostly through Platos dialogues. Atlantis enthusiasts know Plato for his parable about it in Timaeus and other descriptions from Critias. He saw tripartite structures in the world around him. His social structure theory had a governing class, warriors, and workers. He thought the human soul contained reason, spirit, and appetite. He may have founded an institution of learning known as the Academy, from which we get the word academic. Name: Aristocles [dont confuse the name with Aristotle], but known as PlatoPlace of Birth: AthensDates 428/427 to 347 B.C.Occupation: Philosopher The Name Plato Plato was originally named Aristocles, but one of his teachers gave him the familiar name, either because of the breadth of his shoulders or his speech. Birth of Plato Plato was born around May 21 in 428 or 427 B.C., a year or two after Pericles died and during the Peloponnesian War. He was related to Solon and could trace his ancestry to the last legendary king of Athens, Codrus. Plato and Socrates Plato was a student and follower of Socrates until 399, when the condemned Socrates died after drinking the prescribed cup of hemlock. It is through Plato that we are most familiar with Socrates philosophy because he wrote dialogues in which his teacher took part, usually asking leading questions the Socratic method. Platos Apology is his version of the trial and the Phaedo, the death of Socrates. The Legacy of the Academy When Plato died, in 347 B.C., after Philip II of Macedonia had begun his conquest of Greece, leadership of the Academy passed not to Aristotle, who had been a student and then teacher there for 20 years, and who expected to follow, but to Platos nephew Speusippus. The Academy continued for several more centuries. Eroticism Platos Symposium contains ideas on love held by various philosophers and other Athenians. It entertains many points of view, including the idea that people were originally doubled some with the same gender and others with the opposite, and that, once cut, they spend their lives looking for their other part. This idea explains sexual preferences. Atlantis The mythical place known as Atlantis appears as part of a parable in a fragment of Platos late dialogue Timaeus and also in Critias. Tradition of Plato In the Middle Ages, Plato was known mostly through Latin translations of Arabic translations and commentaries. In the Renaissance, when Greek became more familiar, far more scholars studied Plato. Since then, he has had an impact on math and science, morals, and political theory. The Philosopher King Instead of following a political path, Plato thought it more important to educate would-be statesmen. For this reason, he set up a school for future leaders. His school was called the Academy, named for the park in which it was located. Platos Republic contains a treatise on education. Plato is considered by many to be the most important philosopher who ever lived. He is known as the father of idealism in philosophy. His ideas were elitist, with the philosopher king the ideal ruler. Plato is perhaps best known to college students for his parable of a cave, which appears in Platos Republic.
Monday, November 4, 2019
Working Capital Management Practices - Essay Example ernal short term financing is secured to finance the working capital however; firms also tend to tie most of their productive funds with non-productive assets. Family Dollar- One of the most growing retain chain stores in US provides low overhead, self service retail stores. Founded in 1959, in North Carolina, Family Dollar is now one of the leading retail chain stores in US with over 6000 stores operating all over the US. Family Dollar is also unique and fast growing retail chain stores in US in the sense that its success is largely driven from the ease and convenience that it offers to its customers. Family Dollar offers low prices everyday and is on its way to become one of the leading retail chain stores in US. Last five years have witnessed one of the rapid growths in the history of Family Dollar as it expanded very fast and opened more than 4000 new stores during last five years. Family DollarÃ¢â¬â¢s business model is based on effective and unique branding and merchandising strategy similar to neighborhood type of stores. It has collaboration with most of the major brands of the world which not only provides an opportunity to project itself as the leading brands of the world. This paper will discuss and critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of the working capital management policies of the Family Dollar. At the end, recommendations will also be provided as to how the firm can improve its working capital policies and how these recommendations can be implemented. Working capital requirements of every organization vary depending upon the nature of the industry as well as internal dynamics of the firm. However, roughly, it is often estimated at 25 to 40% of the total assets of the firm hence indicating a substantial amount of investment into assets which are typically unproductive in nature. (Glynn, Abraham, Murphy, & Wilkinson, 2008). Typically, the difference between the current assets and current liabilities of the firm is called working capital
Describe how agency theory can be used to explain the mixture of measurement methods observed in contemporary financial reporting. You may provide examples, where relevant, to support your answer - Essay Example orical costs for property and equipment, fair value for financial instruments) were developed, they are used to calculate such monetary amounts that will be used as the basis for the incentives and rewards and, ultimately, to calculate the rewards and incentives. In connection with the above, the principal also often have performance measurement systems in place to assess the performance of their agents. These systems include (among others) an analysis of the financial statements and its relevant ratios (particularly the debt to equity ratio). The measurement methods are used to provide reasonable monetary amounts that can be assigned to each account in the financial statements. In turn, these monetary amounts are used to assess the agentÃ¢â¬â¢s performance (in terms of profits, growth and asset base) and are also used to calculate the critical ratios used for such assessment. Thus, the agency theory and its related performance measurement and rewards systems are supported by the measurement methods as the latter provide the means by which the principals can assess the performance of their agents and the amount of rewards or incentives that the former will give to the latter. Corollary with the agency theory is the concept of agency costs (Jensen, n.d.). The measurement methods may actually affect the agency costs. Agency costs may actually encourage Ã¢â¬Å"companies to choose accounting methods that pre-commit against management opportunismÃ¢â¬ (Christensen and Nikolaev, 2009). This makes companies prefer the historical cost method it is perceived to be a Ã¢â¬Å"more effective mechanism for reducing agency costsÃ¢â¬ (Christensen and Nikolaev, 2009). Fair value and its estimates, on the other hand, may be subjected to the agentÃ¢â¬â¢s (managementÃ¢â¬â¢s) discretion, which in turn, may translate to an increase in agency costs that will be borne by the company. Thus, the presence (or absence) of agency costs actually influence the choice of measurement methods that will be used by
Friday, November 1, 2019
Does the Internet strengthens Social Connections - Research Paper Example Alongside its benefits are its shortcomings. It is widely believed that the internet has alienated people from their surroundings. It has led many people to stay home and chat with their friends online rather than going out with them in person. Other than that the internet has been exploited by the sex industry. Free pornographic images are put up online which corrupt peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and children often become the main target of such an action. On an overall basis, the internet has given us a lot to gain from it and social networking without any doubt has bridged distances between people and brought them together. There arenÃ¢â¬â¢t many people who wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t know about Facebook. It has been the most famous social networking site of all time as it allows almost 600 million people across the globe to be socially connected to each other. Famous social networking forums on the internet do not only allow people to talk to each other, rather it enables them to share a lot of vit al and important information. The creation of organization wide pages on Facebook allows workers to socially reach with each other Ã¢â¬â something that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t really get much time for while theyÃ¢â¬â¢re at work. Facebook has gained so much popularity that many people think that Facebook is like a new worldwide telephone network; only difference being it carries personal connections and profiles instead of voice (Feenberg, pp. 222-240). Another famous social connection tool is Skype. This software allows its user to make free Skype to Skype audio as well as video calls. Internet technology has no doubt reached great extremes as soft wares like Skype allow two people from across the globe to be socially connected to each other by making calls without even paying a single penny. This software has also enabled businessmen to schedule important business meetings online and thereby save on important time and costs. With technologies like Skype, parents worry less before se nding their kids to study abroad knowing they can see them and talk to them whenever they want (Stadler, pp. 29-42). Social connectivity has without doubt reached great extremes with the advent of internet related software. There arenÃ¢â¬â¢t many people who say they know they know all about social networking and donÃ¢â¬â¢t know about MSN Messenger. Not only does this software provide a common platform to chat with relatives and mates throughout the world, but it also comes with a lot of other exciting options for entertainment. It allows its users to play games with each other, do voice and video chat and set common backgrounds. In this fast paced world, the internet has done a lot to keep people close to each other and software like MSN, Facebook and Skype have defined what we call the twenty first century social connectivity. Had it not been for the internet, it would take the current world company CEO and presidents ages till they get to meet their family, given the fact that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re always engrosses with tons and tons of workload. The critics of internet as a means of social networking come up with many arguments. One study available regarding the negative effects of internet on teenagers states, (Web) Ã¢â¬Å"The proliferation of pornographic materials is undeniably one of the alarming things that has brought about by the Internet. It does not only corrupt the minds of the young people that are exposed to them but also it paves the way for the degradation of human dignity. It also strains the moral make up of society. The Internet