Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Date Rape Essay

IntroductionPopular views on commital of desecrate be confined on the idea that a stranger, the supposed perpetrator settles on a reclusive or dark area and forcibly attacking some iodin, before inflicting versed contact. While this may appear to be true, it is now a basic pragmatism that rapists arent just strangers. make up people we know friends, acquaintances, relatives and co-workers are possible suspects. In fact, about half of the victims of rape know their perpetrators.Incidences of commital of the crime seemed to be alarmingly high as it comprised fifty to s make upty-five percent of all(a) accounted rape cases. But even these data do not speak of the actual figures. The University of buffalos Student Af bonnys cited a conservative FBI statistics which sufferd that only three and a half percent of all forms of rape are report.By examining and analyzing uncommitted results, this paper tries to answer questions surrounding era rape, which as follows a) What is under stand rape?, b) How did it evolve?, c) What are its causes?, d) What are the risks factors?, and e) What are the necessary interventions? Anwering these questions would enable us to proffer the necessary information regarding date rape. Definition and history of date rapeOf the cases reported, majority of it appears that the perpetrator is a victimss acquaintance. While it is assumed that around of this acquaintances, ranging from friends and acquaintances to dates, romantic partners, and spouses or domestic partners do not necessarily end up in vehe mence, in certain instances and causes, rape happens. For this withdraw, when forced internal intercourcourse takes place mingled with two acquaintances, it is called date rape or acquaintance rape (Homeier, et al., 2006). bodyguard rape, on an initial public sense, is defined to be a subset of acquaintance rape where two people involved in a romantic relationship engage in nonconsensual sex. But in the case of acquaintance rape, relationship (romantic or professional) has no bearing of the situation hence, it can be described as plain and pure intimate combat or unwanted cozy contact.The truth refers sexual assault to include the commital of rape (oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse) or the force penetration of any foreign objects in the genitalia (dildo, vibrator, including finger) without consent from the victim.Meanwhile, one of the early advocacy movements on date rape in the US was pioneered way back in the 70s in Delaware. The realization of an memorial tablet called Support Group for Victims of Sexual Offense (S.O.S.) founded by then Director of the Health Service Dr. Majorie McKusick was a driving force behind the idea to provide services to survivors of sexual assault. In 1988, SOS produced a brochure dedicated to date rape. At present, bearing a new name, the organization is continuing its efforts to raise sentience on date rape.III. HypothesisBut as to wherefore umteen people fall on the v erge of date rape and as to why individuals commit this crime, remains a broad subject open for establishion. Basing on facts and scientific studies though, leading experts and institutions underwent a series of researches about the topic, some of which have produced fair but contradicting results. Given the extensive scope of this issue, this paper assumes that risk factors perceived dating behaviors, external factors (drugs, alcohol), and attitudes of supposed victims and perpetrators constitute likelihood of dating fury and rape. dryness of the crimeMeanwhile, depending on the gravity of the case, non-penetration actions such as touching the private parts of the victim (e.g. buttocks, breasts, genitalia), naked or through clothing constitute an assault but not necessarily rape, albeit, these are detterent to the rape itself. Forcing another individual to touch another persons private parts even against his/her go away also constitute the same.On the otherhand, the infliction of physical hostility, threats of aggression, or perform sexual contact with an unconscious, asleep, or intoxicated individual describe the force or advantage. Coercion, without the aid of force or hostility is also used such as grave threats, reaveling secrets, put the victim to shame, sack an employee or fail a student are forms of sexual harassment. The Crime sceneActions pertaining to date rapes are reported in strategic areas or venues, depending on the status and preferences of the supposed victim. As the name suggests, the crime usually pointed to locations related to the place of the date or meeting. The assault usually happens in secluded, dark, and private or even public and crabby places (e.g. hotels, garden, beach, comfort rooms, cars or club houses). Some cases were reportedly committed in bushy, dark areas away from the human settlements.In the case of college students, date related force play was recorded within the university premises. This is proof to the fact th at even the school is not even safe nowadays, more so, it has become a favorite venue for this crime. relegation of rape happens usually in a predictable and definite instance. This can be observed if the prospect is conscious of what is happening around him/her. But in most cases, the motives are already predisposed hence, timing is of great consideration for the suspects to pursue with the aided or unaided sexual assault and for victims to escape the trap. Even in a promenade or a fair, where people are busy, perpetrators find a leeway to commit rape if not harassment. The targetsWhile many people often think that rape only happens typically to women, this is not always the case. Even men also have experiences of sexual assault. Some even lead to rape, although it occurs frequently within heterosexual dating relationships.This scenario showed that date rape transcends gender, as in the case of people of every ethnicity, age, culture, religion, economic background, or sexual orient ation. Just like the opposite sex sexual assault, the majority of same-sex cases occur between people who have close relationships. However, perpetrators as well as the survivors are not always gay or lesbian. Moreover, sexual assault can also be part of a bias crime against someone perceived to be gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgendered the perpetrator in this instance can be either the same or opposite sex as the survivor.Although girls and women are the most often victims of rape one in three women go out be sexually assaulted in her life, men is also vulnerable to be raped. A study revealed that seven to ten percent of rape victims are male. Meanwhile, teenagers and young adults are four times more likely to be sexually assaulted than women in all other age groups.A USF-Counseling Center for Human Development report showed that 52% of women students have experience some form of sexual victimization, 1 in 8 college women have been raped 1 in 12 college men admitted to sexuall y abusing women but did not consider themselves rapists of the women raped, almost 75% didnt give away it as such 47% of rapes were by first or casual dates or by romantic acquaintances and over 1/3 of the women didnt discuss the rape with anyone, and over 90% didnt report it to the police.Moreover, in a 1998 Minnesota Student Survey, approximately 9% of girls and 6% of boys had experienced date military unit or rape. On the other hand, lifetime prevalence of date or acquaintance rape ranges from thirteen percent to twenty seven percent among college-age women and 20% to a high of 68% among adolescents.VII. Causes and TendenciesAs to the cause of becoming a victim and becoming a rapist, an array of results from researches in the last decade revealed that behavior, perception, and external factors confronts both the victim and the perpetrator.On a study conducted on perceived causes of date rape, 142 undergraduates were presented with grids containing 9 causes listed by column and row. They were asked to indicate if they believed there was a causative link between each of the 72 causal pairings. The result placed emphasis on drunkenness, norms of dating, and societys attitude to date rape. Misunderstanding of mens behavior, male attitude on the unimportance of date rape, and need by males for dominance were seen as prime causes (Bostwick & DeLucia, 1992).Demographic characteristics that join on vulnerability to date rape include younger age at first date, early sexual activity, earlier age of menarche, history of sexual abuse or preliminary sexual victimization, and being more acceptable of rape myths and violence to screens women. Ackard & Neumark-Sztainer (2002) on the other hand associated date rape with the higher rates of eating overthrow behaviors and suicidal tendencies, and lower scores on emotional well-being and self-esteem scales. Teenage girls intentionally hurt by a date in the preliminary date are more likely to experience sexual health ris ks, including vulnerability to human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections, or getting pregnant. Dating violence should also be included in reproductive health programs, and greater efforts to identify women experiencing violence while on date are ask among those providing care related to adolescent reproductive health (Silverman, 2004).Other risk factors include date-specific behaviors such as who paid the expenses, who drove, date, location and activity, as well as the use of alcohol or take drugs such as flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) (Rickert &Wiemann, 1998).A benzodiazepine with pharmacologic actions is similar to those of diazepam that can cause anterograde amnesia. Some reports showed that it is used as a date rape drug and suggest that it may cause violent behavior. The US government has already outlaw the importation of this drug which was introduced in 1984.Alcohol consumption that occurs within the context of the date can lead to the misinterpretation of friendly gestures or cues as sexual invitations and the females inability to ward off a potential attack.Kanin (1985) proposed that perpetrators deviant sexual behavior has often been portrayed as the result of baffle but legitimate sexual exhaustion. This study of the perpetrators reveals that as a product of a hypersexual socialization process, these men are sexually active, aspiring, and successful. Due to an exaggerated hope levels viewed as responsible for instituting a high degree of sexual disappointment, this acute relative deficit is a significant process reponsible for the rape episodes.VIII. Interventions Dating violence happens among teemagers which bears common and unique risk factors for dating violence found across adolescents grouped by sex, race/ethnicity, and prior victimization. Rickert, et. al., (2002) described that efforts to lessen dating violence should (1) increase the use of screening tools that measure victimization as well as conte xtual parameters that will hike promote dating violence (2) increase self-efficacy to promote safer sex (3) reduce the use/abuse of alcohol and other drugs that facilitate dating violence and (4) eliminate the influence of negative peer behavior. Interventions to embarrass dating violence will likely also lower unwanted pregnancy rates, HIV-AIDS, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)among young people..Old town beliefs of a cleaning lady being unable to rape another woman and a man with another man these make survivors hard to find someone to talk to, help oneself services, or even believe themselves that they were raped. Survivors of assault by a same-sex partner or date may face various fears such as homophobia and heterosexist attitudes when disclosing the sexual ordeal or receive medical or psychologicalinterventions. Van Wies 1995 study on oppositeness to rape showed that participants in the category with perceived resistance conditions took a longer time to identify wh en the subject should abstain from pursuing sexual contact, thereby exposing them more to be raped. Results of this study could be used to promote level of awareness on date rape, educate people about the risks and responses with date rape, and to strengthen rules regarding proper sexual behavior. ConclusionResearch designs and materials are needed to advance our our knowledge and understanding of sexual violence among teenagers and the most effective ways to eliminate it. Understanding and comparing research findings would be easier if consensus regarding the definitions of date rape, sexual aggression, and sexual assault was obtained. Finally, prevention programs on primary and secondary date and acquaintance rape must be enhanced and be subjected to systematic rating (Rickert &Wiemann, 1998)Almost sixty percent of victims who experienced rape and essay rape disclosed this information to one or more individuals, whereas only 47% of those who experienced verbally coerced sex told another person. Rickert, et. al., (2005) observed that alcohol addiction and a shorter dating history are important variables related with disclosure of rape/attempted rape as well as the time for disclosure. Meanwhile, factors affecting the disclosure of verbally coerced sex and the latency associated with it are less well definedA present survey based on 70% returns of a random sample of 200 women at one college indicated that, although 5% had been date raped, none reported the rapes to authorities due to find outings of self-blame and embarrassment. Rape scenarios that were not reported could perpetuate a self-fulfilling prophecy that rapes do not occur. A victim of rape may feel she is the only one against the world and is reluctant to exclude ones self who will report. However, this denial by both victims and authorities does not push programs for prevention and treatment (Finkelson & Oswalt, 1995).Increasing identification of the incidence of date/acquaintance rape (DAR) in the US, especially among women in college, has led to an understanding that the techniques needed to ward off attacks from acquaintances differ from the techniques used to prevent rape by strangers.This study proved and validated the following DAR constructs perceived vulnerability, self-efficacy, relational priority which is neglecting self-interest to exempt a relationship, rape myth acceptance (believing myths about rape which makes women avoid facing their own vulnerability), and commitment to self-defense. These constructs were also correlated with scales for masculinity, self-esteem, and degree of belief in a just world.Finally, date and acquaintance rape is not only a womans issue. Men must also be actively aware of this issue, as they can help minimize rape by educating themselves and others.Healthy relationships involve respect including respect for the feelings of others. Someone who really cares about you will respect your wishes and not force or pressure you to have s ex.ReferencesFinkelson, L., & Oswalt, R. (1995). College date rape incidence and reporting. Psychol Rep, 77(2), 526.Kanin, E. J. (1985). Date rapists differential sexual socialization and relative deprivation. foul Sex Behav, 14(3), 219-231.Rickert, V. I., Wiemann, C. M., & Vaughan, R. D. (2005). Disclosure of date/acquaintance rape who reports and when. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol, 18(1), 17-24.Silverman, J. G., Raj, A., & Clements, K. (2004). Dating violence and associated sexual risk and pregnancy among adolescent girls in the United States. Pediatrics, 114(2), e220-225.Walsh, J. F., Devellis, B. M., & Devellis, R. F. (1997). Date and acquaintance rape. Development and validation of a set of scales. Violence Against Women, 3(1), 46-58.

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